The third term has been expressed as but in wind tunnel work it is often more convenient to measure were the omission of the dash signifies that the moment is now measured about a wind axis. The two quantities are very closely related and the measurement of one tells us almost as much as if the two were known. The latter, however, tells us either directly or indirectly what effect the addition of fin and rudder will have on the autorotation properties of the wings alone. The damping of fin and rudder being due essentially to the air flow meeting them at an angle on account of the rotation it should theoretically be possible to deduce this dynamic quantity from a simple static test of moment due to yaw angle. An experiment to test this was carried out several years ago but the static test did not give any approximation to the truth. This was ascribed at the time to the shielding of fin and rudder by the tail plane in the rotative experiment and subsequent work has amply confirmed this view. It is now known that shielding by the tail plane is by far the most important factor in determining the efficiency of the vertical surfaces at high angles of attack.
Crowe, J.H. (1939), "An Elementary Study of the Spin: A Review of Existing Knowledge on a Problem of Ever‐Present Difficulty", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 11 No. 7, pp. 273-278. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb030511
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