NO component of the modern aero and automobile engine has been more uncertain in action and more troublesome in service than the valve spring.
Nixon, F. (1933), "The Design of Valve Springs: A New and Rapid Method of Designing Springs for a Given Set of Conditions", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 5 No. 9, pp. 193-196. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb029712
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