Much research has been conducted on the causes and consequences of stress (Ivancevich, 1986; Cooper & Payne, 1988; Sauter, Hurrell & Cooper, 1989). More recently, researchers have turned their attention to strategies that might be used to remedy the problem (Cooper, 1987). A number of papers address the issue at a conceptual level, suggesting different ways of categorising stress intervention techniques. Matteson and Ivancevich (1987) draw a distinction between preventive and curative strategies. DeFrank and Cooper (1987) suggest that interventions can focus on the individual, the organisation or the individual/organisational interface. Murphy (1988) presents three levels of intervention: primary (stressor reduction), secondary (stress management) and tertiary (employee assistance programmes).
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