This paper deals with the well known degenerated shell element of Ahmad. The main concern focuses on the rank of the element stiffness matrix and the zero energy modes. Element formulation includes geometrical and material non‐linearities. The Lagrangian, heterosis and serendipity variants of displacement approximation are studied using full, selective or reduced in‐plane numerical integration. In the third direction the layered concept is adopted. The obtained results do not fully coincide with those published in References 2 and 3. The Figures presented in this paper, showing the displacement modes, clarify in a convenient form some of the element properties associated with particular element formulations. The work also shows the influence of the plastic and cracked material conditions on the stiffness matrix of the element.
JENDELE, L., CHAN, A.H.C. and PHILLIPS, D.V. (1992), "ON THE RANK DEFICIENCY OF AHMAD'S DEGENERATED SHELL ELEMENT", Engineering Computations, Vol. 9 No. 6, pp. 635-648. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb023888
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