The objective of this study was to test Ting‐Toomey's (1988a) theory on conflict face‐negotiation. More specifically, the study examined the relationship between face maintenance dimensions and conflict styles in Japan, China, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. The results were summarized as follows: (1) Cultural variability of individualism‐collectivism influences two face maintenance dimensions—self‐face concern and other‐face concern; (2) Cultural variability influences conflict styles, with U.S. members using a higher degree of dominating conflict style than their Japanese and Korean cohorts, and the Chinese and Taiwanese members using a higher degree of obliging and avoiding conflict management styles than their U.S. counterparts; (3) Overall, face maintenance dimensions served as better predictors to conflict styles rather than conflict styles to face dimensions; (4) Self‐face maintenance was associated strongly with dominating conflict style, and other‐face maintenance was associated strongly with avoiding, integrating, and compromising styles of conflict management. Directions for future testing of the conflict face‐negotiation theory were proffered.
Ting‐Toomey, S., Gao, G., Trubisky, P., Yang, Z., Soo Kim, H., Lin, S. and Nishida, T. (1991), "CULTURE, FACE MAINTENANCE, AND STYLES OF HANDLING INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT: A STUDY IN FIVE CULTURES", International Journal of Conflict Management, Vol. 2 No. 4, pp. 275-296. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb022702
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