A number of major studies of social stratification have been conducted since the Second World War. Focusing on societal openness, or equality of opportunity, these studies have ranged from investigations of individual status attainment and mobility processes to the analysis of class closure and class conflict among groups. What these studies have mostly in common, however, is that the form of stratification within which mobility or class closure is considered is occupational. Also, they have almost entirely concentrated on the male population. Openness, or equality of opportunity, is usually assessed in terms of the association between fathers' and sons' occupations, or the relative chances a son has to inherit his father's class or status position (Dale et al, 1985). Low rates of inheritance, or a lack of association in class position across generations, are interpreted as indicating weak tendencies towards social closure between strata and classes. Strong associations, or low rates of class interchange, are taken as evidence of greater structuration.
Hayes, B.C. and Jones, F.L. (1991), "EDUCATION AND MARRIAGE PATTERNS IN AUSTRALIA", International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb013134
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