Positive organizational scholars define positivity as “elevating processes and outcomes” (Cameron & Caza, 2004, p. 731). Thus, a better understanding of positive processes requires the investigation of the explanatory mechanisms that can account for the manifestation of “intentional behaviors that depart from the norm of a reference group in honorable ways” (Spreitzer & Sonenshein, 2003, p. 209). Positivity also focuses on outcomes that “dramatically exceed common or expected performance…spectacular results, surprising outcomes, extraordinary achievements…exceptional performance” (Cameron, 2008, p. 8). This “positive deviance” clearly goes beyond ordinary success or effectiveness.
Youssef-Morgan, C.M. and Luthans, F. (2013), "Psychological Capital Theory: Toward a Positive Holistic Model", Bakker, A.B. (Ed.) Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology (Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology, Vol. 1), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 145-166. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2046-410X(2013)0000001009
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