The increasing trend towards sustainable development has seen a shift from ‘end of pipe solutions’ to the ongoing threat of pollution. Policy makers have come to accept the need for some form of inbuilt environmental standards to be included in any overall planning strategy. These shifts come in the wake of the Brundtland Report and the Rio World Summit. They have also shaped environmental policy. A central feature of this new thinking is the theory of ‘Ecological Modernisation’ (EM). Underpinning this debate are the theorists Janicke, Weale and Hajer, who have each contributed to the conceptualisation of EM as a feature of modern society. It can be argued that EM theory reflects a critical new positioning of the environmental debate, moving away from the periphery of social, cultural and political channels and becoming an important aspect of policy planning in these areas.
(2011), "Postscript 2: Ecological Modernisation and Irish Environmental Policy", Leonard, L. (Ed.) Community Campaigns for Sustainable Living: Health, Waste & Protest in Civil Society (Advances in Ecopolitics, Vol. 7), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 209-249. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2041-806X(2011)0000007014
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