We link counterproductive work behavior (CWB) (particularly workplace bullying) and organizational citizenship behavior to individual narcissism and organizational culture. We link counterproductive work culture in turn to organizations' leader(s), enumerating multiple roles an executive may play: actor, target, ignorer, enabler, rewarder, or, ultimately, champion of change. Both positive (citizenship) and negative (counterproductive) behaviors are associated with narcissism, a complex, multifaceted set of personality characteristics, primarily based on the individual's cognitive interpretation of self and the world. Theoretical interpretations of reactive CWB (stressor-emotion-control theory) and instrumental CWB (theory of planned behavior) support the development of coaching and counseling interventions. Cognitive behavioral theory (CBT)-based prescriptive executive coaching is proposed as a promising mechanism for redirecting narcissistic organizational players from counterproductive to citizenship schemas and behaviors.
Fox, S. and Freeman, A. (2011), "Narcissism and the Deviant Citizen: A Common Thread in CWB and OCB", Perrewé, P.L. and Ganster, D.C. (Ed.) The Role of Individual Differences in Occupational Stress and Well Being (Research in Occupational Stress and Well Being, Vol. 9), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 151-196. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-3555(2011)0000009009
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