Rigid environments, those with exceptionally strong cultural and traditional barriers to change, present unique challenges for institutional entrepreneurs attempting to initiate change. We utilize such a setting to examine what support mechanisms, both individual and contextual, have been utilized when attempting change in rigid environments. We examine the case of successful and unsuccessful attempts to make golf more inclusive to women. Our research supports the claim that rigid environments require more complex combinations of support mechanisms than other settings, illustrating the importance of institutions in both enabling and constraining change in such settings.
Patterson, K.D.W., Arthur, M. and Washington, M. (2016), "Success and Failure in Rigid Environments: How Marginalized Actors Used Institutional Mechanisms to Overcome Barriers to Change in Golf", How Institutions Matter! (Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Vol. 48A), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. 273-301. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0733-558X201600048A009
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