Governments face many complex problems that require collective solutions involving multiple actors who often disagree both on the nature of the problem and on the necessary solution (Rittel & Webber, 1973). The difficulties are often exacerbated because actors tend to have insufficient or incorrect knowledge of the problems at hand.
Klijn, E.-H., Steijn, B., Edelenbos, J. and Vermeeren, B. (2011), "Chapter 11 Steering for Social Outcomes in Governance Networks: The Effects of Participation and Network Management", Groeneveld, S. and Van De Walle, S. (Ed.) New Steering Concepts in Public Management (Research in Public Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 21), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 165-183. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0732-1317(2011)0000021015
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