Willard A. Hanna's astute observation above about the institutionalization of corruption in Indonesia was published in August 1971, five years after President Soeharto assumed power. The origins of corruption in Indonesia can be traced to the Dutch colonial period as bribery was rife among the lowly paid personnel of the Dutch East India Company (Day, 1966, pp. 100–103). However, corruption became institutionalized during President Soeharto's 32-year reign as his cronies and family “made an art form of creaming off many of Indonesia's most profitable ventures … while being protected by monopoly regulations and their relationship to the president” (Kingsbury, 1998, p. 202). Raymond Bonner (1988, p. 80) has used the euphemism “the family business” to describe “the corruption surrounding members of the Suharto family,” which was “a public secret” in 1988.
Quah, J.S.T. (2011), "Chapter 10 Indonesia", Quah, J.S.T. (Ed.) Curbing Corruption in Asian Countries: An Impossible Dream? (Research in Public Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 20), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 341-395. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0732-1317(2011)0000020017
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