Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases around the world, and mainly affects the foot among the human body parts. The main causes of the diabetic foot are neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease and foot deformities; it leads to foot ulceration. Generally, sensory loss, high plantar pressure, foot deformities, inappropriate footwear, blindness, and age are the causing risk factors for developing foot ulceration in diabetic patients. Foot ulceration will result in prolonged hospitalization, high medical expenses, and serious complications with lower extremity amputation. For a long time, appropriate footwear has been recommended by physicians for reducing plantar pressure to prevent foot ulceration, the risk of amputation, and re-ulceration. A review is provided in this article towards the existing literature on the causes and prevalence of the diabetic foot, foot ulceration, off-loading pressure, footwear modification for different types of diabetic foot deformities, and types of footwear and textile materials used in footwear insoles for healing purposes.
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