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Examining measurement invariance of an ICT literacy self-efficacy scale across gender: a comparative study

Maryam Nasser Al-Nuaimi (Department of Information Technology, Al-Buraimi University College, Al-Buraimi, Oman)

Performance Measurement and Metrics

ISSN: 1467-8047

Article publication date: 8 September 2023

Issue publication date: 31 October 2023




Despite the ever-increasing importance of cultivating information, communication and technology literacy skills among college students, they have yet to be related to comprehensive measuring instruments. A glance at the empirical literature reveals that most pertinent scales have been confined to measuring Internet literacy skills, whereas educators in the 21st century advocate an inclusive conceptualization of ICT literacy. Such a comprehensive conceptualization embodies technical, critical, cognitive and emotional competencies. Additionally, more empirical evidence is needed to indicate gaps in testing measurement invariance of ICT literacy scales across genders or cultures. To that end, the current study aims to adapt and cross-validate an ICT literacy self-efficacy scale across gender by testing the measurement invariance using a multiple-sampling confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA). Furthermore, the current study aims to verify the ICT literacy self-efficacy scale's psychometric properties to establish its construct validity and understand the scale's underlying factorial structure.


The current study has administered the scale to a cross-sectional sample of 3560 undergraduate students enrolled in six universities in the Sultanate of Oman.


The results have revealed that the ICT literacy self-efficacy exhibits satisfactory indices of construct validity. On the other hand, the results of MCFA demonstrate that the differences in the goodness of fit indices between the nested models and the baseline model were below the cut-off criterion of 0.01, indicating invariance. Therefore, the scale has proved to be amenable for comparing genders on their ICT literacy self-efficacy using an one-way multivariate analysis of variance.


The study has several implications for research and pedagogical practices. The study provides empirical evidence for establishing ICT literacy self-efficacy as a distinct high-domain construct of task-specific self-efficacy beliefs.



The author wishes to thank undergraduate students, who volunteered to participate. The author also would like to thank the academic faculties and information systems professionals, who facilitated the study's conduction.


Al-Nuaimi, M.N. (2023), "Examining measurement invariance of an ICT literacy self-efficacy scale across gender: a comparative study", Performance Measurement and Metrics, Vol. 24 No. 3/4, pp. 176-194.



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