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The short-term and long-term impacts of the procedural justice training

Mengyan Dai (Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA)
Xiaochen Hu (Criminal Justice, Fayetteville State University, Fayetteville, North Carolina, USA)
Lindsey Thomas (Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA)
Robert Kenter (Norfolk Police Department, Norfolk, Virginia, USA)

Policing: An International Journal

ISSN: 1363-951X

Article publication date: 1 October 2020

Issue publication date: 10 October 2020




This study examines the short- and long-term changes in officers' attitudes toward four elements of procedural justice (i.e. trustworthiness, respect, neutrality and voice) after a department-wide procedural justice training program.


This study utilized the pretest–posttest, single-group design to evaluate the training with two waves of officer surveys and conducted multivariate analyses to assess the factors that could have an impact on the training effects.


The training was effective in increasing officers' support for all four elements of procedural justice immediately, and the effects remained significant over 18 months. In addition, the analyses found that there were racial differences in officers' attitudes before and after the training, and the immediate supervisors' priority played an important role in the training effects.


There has been limited systematic research on police training. This study contributes to the understanding of how procedural justice training can help improve police-community relations and reduce the attitudinal differences between White officers and minority officers.



This project was supported by Award No. 2016-IJ-CX-0020, awarded by the National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of Justice.


Dai, M., Hu, X., Thomas, L. and Kenter, R. (2020), "The short-term and long-term impacts of the procedural justice training", Policing: An International Journal, Vol. 43 No. 5, pp. 689-705.



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