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State role will entrench Syrian-Lebanese drugs trade

Tuesday, July 13, 2021


Key to the new pattern is the increased association of state and state-linked actors with the trade in narcotics, primarily Captagon and hashish. The new environment creates risks around larger shipments, changing drug formulas and Europe becoming a destination market.


  • Drug smuggling is likely to undercut and subvert the impact of US and EU sanctions.
  • The key state-linked actors involved in drug smuggling are likely to support Iranian proxy influence in the Levant.
  • The Gulf market, in particular, will see a rising health challenge from potentially dangerous Captagon substitutes.

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