It will not be easy to reconcile new tasks with traditional price-stability mandates. Moreover, it is not clear what data banks should use to measure progress, while a green transition will depend on closer coordination with governments, creating challenges for politically independent central banks.
- As governments raise carbon taxes, there will be calls to loosen monetary policy to offset their deflationary effect.
- ‘Mission creep’ is a risk for authorities; financial firms may incur losses if politicians fail to follow through on carbon price moves.
- Green investments risk a bubble effect, especially as short-run supplies of metals such as cobalt and lithium are limited.