Meanwhile, concern is growing that Israel is mounting regular airstrikes on Iran-backed militia bases inside Iraq. The conflict against Islamic State (IS) led to the emergence of numerous armed groups, known as the Popular Mobilisation Units (PMUs), formalised by a 2014 government decision and theoretically integrated into the armed forces in 2018. Most are drawn from southern Shia areas, and many of the largest are backed by Iran.
- Militias will be forced to lower their profile and present fewer threats.
- Larger Iran-backed militias will use reforms to consolidate their power.
- Israel will continue striking Iran-backed militias and Iraq may turn to Russia for air defence.