Differentiation is an important dimension of organizational structure, as it is the building block of organizational structure upon which organizations are based. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of differentiation in central libraries of leading universities in Pakistan.
Multiple quantitative methods were used to carry out this research. Structured questionnaire, perusal of organizational documents and observation of library section were used to collect data for this study.
Majority of libraries have divided the entire library operations into five to eight departments, and acquisition, circulation and periodical sections are created in almost all the libraries included in the sample. Unity of command principle is applied at only the section level, but dual chain of command is prevalent for personnel working under the two hierarchical levels, i.e. section head and library head, as they have to report to both of them. In majority of libraries, average span of control ranges from five to ten personnel for the library head and from six to seven personnel for the section head.
No such study is conducted in Pakistan. This study has identified the levels of differentiation and will guide academic library executives in creating a balance in the levels of differentiation to accomplish the objectives of the organization.
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