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Decision and coordination of a low-carbon supply chain considering environmental tax policy on consumers

Chuanxu Wang (Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, China)
Qiaoyu Peng (Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, China)
Lang Xu (Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, China)


ISSN: 0368-492X

Article publication date: 22 October 2020

Issue publication date: 22 July 2021




This paper aims to explore how upstream supply chain companies will control the carbon emissions and price decisions of products when the government implements environmental tax policy on consumers. It provides some suggestions to control carbon emissions for the government and manufacturers.


This study establishes two-echelon Stackelberg game models with and without the implementation of environmental tax policy on consumers in a centralized scenario and a decentralized scenario. Through the comparative analysis of the four models, the optimal emission abatement and pricing strategies are obtained.


This paper concludes that implementing environmental tax policy on consumers within the market’s acceptable range is more beneficial to the retailer and the environment, as well as the overall social welfare, except for the manufacturer. Moreover, consumer’s low-carbon preference always has a broader impact on carbon abatement and corporate profits than environmental tax coefficient. Finally, the side-payment self-executing contract can effectively ensure that the supply chain members make rational decisions spontaneously while achieving a win-win solution of centralized scenario.


This paper first considers how the government’s environmental tax policy on consumers will affect the decision-making of supply chain companies, and proposes an improved side-payment self-enforcing contract to maximize environmental and economic benefits of centralized scenario. In addition, it provides a reference for the government to adopt both the carbon cap policy and the environmental tax policy.



Wang, C., Peng, Q. and Xu, L. (2021), "Decision and coordination of a low-carbon supply chain considering environmental tax policy on consumers", Kybernetes, Vol. 50 No. 8, pp. 2318-2346.



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