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Intellectual capital reporting: a longitudinal study of New Zealand companies

Tracy-Anne De Silva (Faculty of Commerce, Lincoln University, Christchurch, New Zealand)
Michelle Stratford (Faculty of Commerce, Lincoln University, Christchurch, New Zealand)
Murray Clark (Faculty of Commerce, Lincoln University, Christchurch, New Zealand)

Journal of Intellectual Capital

ISSN: 1469-1930

Article publication date: 7 January 2014



The purpose of this paper is to examine intellectual capital reporting patterns of New Zealand companies over a longitudinal period, comparing knowledge intensive companies with traditional product-based companies.


Content analysis was used to examine the intellectual capital reporting of five knowledge intensive companies and five traditional product-based companies listed on the New Zealand Stock Exchange during 2004-2010.


The longitudinal study found that although there was an increase in intellectual capital reporting from 2004 to 2010, there was no strong pattern reflecting a marked increase in reporting over the time period. The findings also show that the level of intellectual capital reporting cannot be determined by the type of organisation. Further, the majority of intellectual capital reporting was found to be in discursive form and only a small percentage of reporting conveyed negative news.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study are limited by the small sample size overall and the small number of companies in both the knowledge intensive and the traditional product-based groups.

Practical implications

The research suggests areas that could be considered by regulatory bodies and policy makers when developing more informed intellectual capital reporting guidelines.


This research provides a basis for further research, debate and action regarding intellectual capital in both academia and practice. Longitudinal intellectual capital reporting research and distinctions between knowledge intensive and traditional product-based companies have seldom been undertaken. Consequently little is known about the changes in intellectual capital reporting over time or the differences in intellectual capital reporting, if any, between type of company.



De Silva, T.-A., Stratford, M. and Clark, M. (2014), "Intellectual capital reporting: a longitudinal study of New Zealand companies", Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 157-172.



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