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Understanding the entrepreneurial intentions of youth: a PLS multi-group and FIMIX analysis using the model of goal-directed behavior

Juan Carlos Londono (Department of Management and Organization, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Cali, Colombia)
Bradley Wilson (Facultad de Administración, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogota, Colombia and Department of Services Management, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany)
Fabian Osorio-Tinoco (Department of Management and Organization, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Cali, Colombia)

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies

ISSN: 2053-4604

Article publication date: 23 July 2020

Issue publication date: 17 July 2021




This paper aims to test the model of goal-directed behavior (MGB) in the prediction of entrepreneurial intentions of high school students. It also uncovers heterogeneity and differences in structural paths. The study aims to expand the toolbox of theoretical models that are useful to interpret entrepreneurial intentions by including the MGB. The MGB explains the role of desires, anticipated emotions and frequency of past behavior (FPB). These aspects are underplayed in other models.


The paper opted for a study using PLS path modeling. The authors applied questionnaires to 643 students (260 boys and 383 girls) from 34 high school institutions of a large metropolitan city in a developing country. Data analysis used a multi-group analysis and a finite mixture (FIMIX) approach.


The paper provides empirical insights about the antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions and confirms the role that desires and FPB have in their development. MGA results suggest that PBC relevance depends on gender, and emotions vary with socio economic level (SEL).

Research limitations/implications

Research results are limited to high school students. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further with university students and the general population in other developing and developed countries.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for teaching curriculum and government policy in entrepreneurship. The results encourage the study of entrepreneurship from a young age and the importance of teaching how to overcome negative emotions in the entrepreneurial process.


This paper satisfies a recognized need to evaluate competing models that explain entrepreneurial intentions. The grouping analysis uncovers opportunities to develop innovative education and training strategies.



The authors appreciate the support provided by both University of Los Andes and University of Javeriana Cali. Additionally, the authors value the work by the Research Assistants Daniel Guevara and Juan Carlos Villalobos at the University of Los Andes’ Management School.


Londono, J.C., Wilson, B. and Osorio-Tinoco, F. (2021), "Understanding the entrepreneurial intentions of youth: a PLS multi-group and FIMIX analysis using the model of goal-directed behavior", Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, Vol. 13 No. 3, pp. 301-326.



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