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Inhabiting war craters examining geostatistical modeling within landscape heritage recovery in Aleppo

Doaa Salaheldin Ismail Elsayed (Architectural Department, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr el-Sheikh, Egypt)

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development

ISSN: 2044-1266

Article publication date: 21 May 2021

Issue publication date: 1 December 2022




Aleppo city in Syria has witnessed severe bombardment since the 2011 war affecting its landscape heritage, causing explicit geomorphological changes with anthropogenic qualities. The research aims to log observations on the patterns of bombardment craters. It investigates their key role in guiding post-war recovery plans. Currently, the interpretation of war scars is not considered in the reconstruction plans proposed by local administrations and here lies the importance of the research.


The study investigates the geomorphological transformations along the southern citadel perimeter in old Aleppo. Currently, digital tools facilitated data prediction in conflict areas. The research employs an empirical method for inhabiting war craters based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The former utilizes satellite images to define the geographical changes of landscape heritage. The latter applies geostatistical data analysis, validation, interpolation and simulation for multi-temporal Google Earth maps. The study exploits Surfer 13 software to localize and measure the preserved craters.


The research employs the generated models in a landscape design proposal examining the method's applicability. Finally, it offers a methodological toolkit guiding post-war landscape recovery toward the interpretation of conflict geography.

Practical implications

The paper enables a practical understanding of the contemporaneity of landscape heritage recovery as an action between sustainable development and conservation.

Social implications

The paper integrates the conflict geographies to the people's commemoration of places and events.


The article offers an insight into the rehabilitation of war landscapes focusing on land craters, exploiting geostatistical data prediction methods.



This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors, and the article has no conflict of interest to declare.


Elsayed, D.S.I. (2022), "Inhabiting war craters examining geostatistical modeling within landscape heritage recovery in Aleppo", Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 533-550.



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