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Actual and virtual food heritage walking tour for building better citizenship understanding (insight from Indonesia)

Ghifari Yuristiadhi Masyhari Makhasi (Department of Foreign Languages, Arts, and Culture Management, Vocational College, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia)

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development

ISSN: 2044-1266

Article publication date: 21 November 2023




This study aims to analyze the extent to which the walking tour in virtual version appeals to the younger generation and still provides lessons about cultural acculturation that can inspire citizenship today compared to an actual walking tour.


This quasi-experimental design uses pre-test and post-test with structured interviews for data collection from five purposive participants who related the experience and storytelling that they experienced from the tours.


This study finds while virtual tours cannot replace physical walking tours because of real multisensory experiences, storytelling and guiding interpretation through virtual tours is more likeable than walking tours Due to some potential disturbance in the field. However, the guiding interpretation related to the message of multiculturalism still reaches tourists both through actual and virtual tours.

Research limitations/implications

This study has limitations regarding the number of participants. A larger number of participants may provide greater objectivity. In addition, regarding the quasi-experimental method used, it is possible to have different results if the actual walking tour precedes the virtual tour, and this can be a broad discussion space for future researchers.

Social implications

Practically, this walking tour is expected to be a model for civic education, especially in Indonesia, which is delivered in a fun way through a walking tour.


This study offers a novelty regarding the development of a walking tour based on citizenship education, which can be seen from its impact on the younger generation when it is held virtually or actually.



The author thanks the Asian Research Institute, National University of Singapore for organizing the Workshop on Cultural Heritage, Digitalization and Urban Diversity in Asia in September 2021 and facilitating the publication of this article.


Masyhari Makhasi, G.Y. (2023), "Actual and virtual food heritage walking tour for building better citizenship understanding (insight from Indonesia)", Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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