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Theoretical analysis of social inclusion and social leverage in the Anthropocene era

Giovanni Efrain Reyes Ortiz (School of Management, Del Rosario University, Bogota, Colombia)
Félix Oscar Socorro Márquez (Department of Business Organization, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain)
Rafael A. Gassón Pacheco (Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia)

International Journal of Social Economics

ISSN: 0306-8293

Article publication date: 2 December 2022

Issue publication date: 17 March 2023




The main objective of this research is to present a theoretical review of social inclusion and social leverage in the Anthropocene era.


To fulfil this objective, four fundamental and complementary approaches are taken into account: (1) the theory of increasing capacities and increasing opportunities as essential aspects of Amartya Sen's theory of human development; (2) the perspective and factors of the current globalization process; (3) Douglass North's neo-institutionalist approach to social and political conditions and (4) the foundations of Jürgen Habermas's theory of legitimacy.


These considerations make possible a perspective that goes beyond the strictly economic elements, to complement the point of view with other aspects, including those of public policy analysis as part of the current era of global change known as Anthropocene.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to a theoretical review of social inclusion and social leverage essentially taking into account the perspectives of Amartya Sen, Douglass North and Jürgen Habermas.

Practical implications

Social leverage mechanisms can be efficient means to achieve conditions of sustained and inclusive improvements in the conditions of social interrelations. In this way, it is possible to shape dynamics of economic and social development, based on productive efficiency, social equity and ecological sustainability.

Social implications

The fundamental contribution explained by this study consists in establishing that social leverage is essential in order to achieve three goals inherent to economic and social development.


Based on its methodology and academic vision, the paper is completely original.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at:



Reyes Ortiz, G.E., Socorro Márquez, F.O. and Gassón Pacheco, R.A. (2023), "Theoretical analysis of social inclusion and social leverage in the Anthropocene era", International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 50 No. 4, pp. 478-490.



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