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The impact of blame culture on paramedic practice: A qualitative study exploring English and Finnish paramedic perceptions

Andrew Kirk (Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, UK)
Kevin Armstrong (Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, UK)
Niina Nurkka (Faculty of Health Care and Social Services, Saimaa University of Applied Sciences, Lappeenranta, Finland)
Annette Jinks (Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, UK)

International Journal of Emergency Services

ISSN: 2047-0894

Article publication date: 12 April 2018

Issue publication date: 24 October 2018




The purpose of this paper is to explore English and Finnish paramedic perceptions of the healthcare blame culture, its relationship to complaints, the use of defensive practice and if this impacts on paramedic practice and clinical care.


Participants were recruited from English and Finnish ambulance services that have similar organisational and professional scopes of practice. The aim was to gain insight into the similarities and differences between the countries regarding the existence of a blame culture in paramedic practice. Semi-structured focus groups and interviews involving 20 English and Finnish paramedics were undertaken. Qualitative perceptions concerning the reality of a blame culture in paramedic practice and its impact on professional roles were sought.


Three major themes that were identified in the thematic analysis included: blame culture and its influences; the impact of complaints against paramedics; and the use of defensive practice within their roles. These data themes were similar for both groups of participants. The majority of participants thought the healthcare blame culture to be widespread and believed that this was likely to directly influence paramedics’ working practices.


Whilst the impact of blame culture and complaints on the medical profession has previously been examined, this study makes an important contribution by exploring the factors that impact on paramedics’ lives and their practice, within two European countries. The inappropriate use of social media by some members of the public in both countries was a disturbing issue for many participants and was identified as an area for further research.



Kirk, A., Armstrong, K., Nurkka, N. and Jinks, A. (2018), "The impact of blame culture on paramedic practice: A qualitative study exploring English and Finnish paramedic perceptions", International Journal of Emergency Services, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 214-227.



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