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Gender differences in personal values: a business perspective

Hussein Ismail (Department of Management Studies, Lebanese American University (LAU), Beirut, Lebanon)

International Journal of Commerce and Management

ISSN: 1056-9219

Article publication date: 2 November 2015




The purpose of this paper is to explore gender differences in personal values in an Arab country.


Based on a sample of 137 participants, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to identify if the mean scores or ranks of personal values scores were significantly different between males and females. A scale developed by McDonald and Gandz (1991, 1992) was used in this study.


The findings show that females place a higher weight on personal values related to the broad categories of “ethics” and “citizenship”, while males put a stronger emphasis on “masculinity”. There were no significant differences between males and females on personal values concerned with the “vision” factor.

Practical implications

The results show that organizations may have to increase their training programs in the area of ethics especially for males. Second, females can be trained on how to demonstrate some masculine traits necessary for career growth without receiving the negative reactions common to such a practice. Third, organizations could offer diversity training to minimize bias toward females. Fourth, organizations should build a culture that emphasizes citizenship in organizations such as adhering to rules and policies and maintaining and protecting the work environment.


This is the first research study which explores gender differences in personal values in an Arab country, and one which promises to offer important HR implications. Moreover, an important departure from all previous studies is that the study measures personal values that are more related to the business context.



This study was supported by a research grant from Lebanese American University.


Ismail, H. (2015), "Gender differences in personal values: a business perspective", International Journal of Commerce and Management, Vol. 25 No. 4, pp. 687-698.



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