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Effects of gain-loss-framed messages on virtual reality intervened fitness exercise

Rohit Yadav (Faculty of Commerce and Management, SGT University, Gurugram, India)
Mohit Yadav (Jindal Global Business School, O.P. Jindal Global University, Sonipat, India)
Amit Mittal (Chitkara Business School, Chitkara University, Punjab, India)

Information Discovery and Delivery

ISSN: 2398-6247

Article publication date: 14 December 2021

Issue publication date: 13 October 2022




Technology for fitness provides users with numerous features that aid the achievement of intended fitness/health goals such as checking consumption habits and adherence to exercise. Based upon the concepts of self-efficacy and prospect theories, this study aims to inspect the influence of messages frame on behavioral usage of virtual reality (VR) technology intervened fitness exercise.


By usage of a laboratory-based experiment commissioning certain fitness exercises, this study is conducted on 150 respondents. An assessment is conducted on the efficiency of gain appeal mechanism (exercise performance feedback) toward the usage of VR intervened fitness exercise and measured surge in exercise self-efficacy (ESE), playfulness (PL) and outcome expectations.


The results show that gain-appealed/framed messages prove advantageous over loss-appealed/framed in performing VR intervened exercises. A bootstrapped (method) mediation analysis confirms higher positive effects of gain-framed messages upon intentions to use VR intervened fitness exercise. VR intervened fitness exercise was strongly and positively mediated by ESE, PL and outcome expectations.

Practical implications

This study is of help to researchers and marketers trying to understand the role played by gain- and loss-framed messages on VR technology enabled fitness exercises.


This study helps VR and fitness technology developers and marketers understand the effectiveness of persuasive performance messages toward VR fitness exercise technology adoption amalgamating message intervention with better technology usage.



Yadav, R., Yadav, M. and Mittal, A. (2022), "Effects of gain-loss-framed messages on virtual reality intervened fitness exercise", Information Discovery and Delivery, Vol. 50 No. 4, pp. 374-386.



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