The purpose of this paper is to carry out an extensive numerical study in order to understand the flow structures and the resulting noise generated by a supersonic impinging jet on a flat plate. One of the parameters varied in this study is the distance between the jet exit plane and the flat plate.
Because of the unsteady nature of the problem a time-dependent computation is carried out using the detached eddy simulation turbulence model. The OVERFLOW 2 CFD code was used with a highly resolved grid and small time steps.
The authors found that as the separation distance increases, the dominant frequencies in the noise spectrum decrease. In addition, the relative strength of the various frequencies to each other changes with changing distance, indicating the changing modes of the jet. The CFD results indicate a strong interaction between the acoustic waves emanating from the impingement plate and the jet plume. This feedback mechanism is responsible for destabilizing the jet shear layer leading to the jet changing modes. The computed near field spectra, convection velocities of the jet vortical structures and mean jet centerline velocity profile are in good agreement with experimental measurements. The results also show very high sound pressure levels all over the impingement plate but especially near the impingement point. These levels, if sustained, are detrimental to both human operators as well as the surrounding structures.
Given the large-scale nature of the computations carried out, it is very costly to run the computations long enough to collect a good, statistically steady time sample to achieve a low frequency bandwidth resolution. Such a long time sample could actually improve the results in terms of frequency resolution and obtained an even better agreement with experiments. Off course there is always the issue of grid resolution as well, but given the good agreement with experiments that the authors obtained, the authors are confident in their results.
The practical implications of the results the authors obtained are significant in that, the authors now know that hybrid RANS-large eddy simulation methods can be used for this complex, unsteady engineering problems. In addition, the results also show the high noise level both on the impingement surface and in the surroundings of the jet. This could have a negative impact on the structural integrity of the flat surface.
Noisy environments are never desirable anywhere especially in places where human operations take place. Therefore, given the high noise levels obtained in the simulations and confirmed by experiments, any human presence around the jet will be harmful to hearing and precautions need to be taken.
This is a physics-based study; i.e. understanding the physical phenomena involved in supersonic jet impingement. Of particular interest is the interaction of the jet shear layer with the acoustic waves emanating from the impingement area. This feedback loop is found to be responsible for intensifying the instability of the jet shear layer.
The first author would like to acknowledge the support of Kratos/Digital Fusion Solutions Inc. during the course of his PhD program. The first author would also like to acknowledge the support of his coworkers in the Aerosciences and Engineering Analysis branch whose support made this work possible.
Frendi, A. and Brown, M. (2016), "Flow structures and noise from a supersonic impinging jet", International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, Vol. 26 No. 8, pp. 2509-2527. https://doi.org/10.1108/HFF-05-2015-0174Download as .RIS
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