International trade is steadily increasing. Most of this relies to some extent on ocean‐going ships and, in consequence, the size of the world shipping fleet has been growing. Some years ago it became apparent that there was an anomaly in the composition of this fleet. In particular, developing countries contributed a large proportion of goods moved (primarily by the supply of raw materials to developed countries), but they owned and operated only a small proportion of the ships. Some measures were taken to match the use of ships with their ownership more closely. These measures included both restrictions on foreign shipping and increases of operating efficiency so that developing countries became more competitive. In principle, most observers preferred the latter course of improving efficiency, but this has many associated problems. Some of these can be illustrated by reference to containerised transport, which has brought substantial benefits to developed countries, but the different economic conditions in developing countries make its benefits less clear.
Waters, C. and Soman, S. (1989), "Sea Transport for Industrialising Countries", International Journal of Physical Distribution & Materials Management, Vol. 19 No. 8, pp. 18-23. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000000331Download as .RIS
MCB UP Ltd
Copyright © 1989, MCB UP Limited