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Work performance change during the Covid-19 pandemic under risk-as-feelings hypothesis for managers across Europe

Fadhila Hamza (Accounting Department, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

EuroMed Journal of Business

ISSN: 1450-2194

Article publication date: 28 February 2023




This study aims to examine the predictors of the managers’ work performance under the risk-as-feelings hypothesis during the Covid-19 pandemic in four European countries. Specifically, it aims to investigate the impact of risk-related job stressors and behavioral and emotional reactivities on non-managers and managers performance in risky circumstances.


The author assessed simultaneously the effects of occupational health risk perception and the resulting feelings and emotional state such irritability and commitment change, the effects of income and others organizational and personal variables as performance stressors. The author used a sample of 652 employees divided on two groups (71% non-managers and 23% managers). Data are obtained from the dataset in Prochazka et al., (2020) collected using online survey delivered to employees employed in their companies for a minimum of five months in the period between Mai and June 2020.


The results confirm the risk-as-feelings hypothesis and show significant effect of occupational health risk perception and associated emotional responses (irritability and commitment) on the work performance for non-managers’ group. However, for managers’ group the main determinant of work performance is the organizational commitment as explained by the job-demands-resources-model (JDRM).


The originality of this study is to employ the risk-as-feelings hypothesis (Loewenstein et al., 2001) in a management research question such as job performance predictors. Thus, this study contributes to the literature on job performance in two significant ways. First, it examines the risk-related job’s stressors as determinants of managers and non-managers performance under the risk-as-feelings hypothesis. Second, it tests the importance of functional differences as an approach to better investigate the framework of the JDRM (Bakker and Demerouti, 2017).



Hamza, F. (2023), "Work performance change during the Covid-19 pandemic under risk-as-feelings hypothesis for managers across Europe", EuroMed Journal of Business, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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