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Advanced aircraft performance analysis

Marc Immer (Department of Aircraft Performance, ALR Aerospace, Zurich, Switzerland)
Philipp Georg Juretzko (Department of Aircraft Performance, ALR Aerospace, Zurich, Switzerland)

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology

ISSN: 0002-2667

Article publication date: 8 May 2018




The preliminary aircraft design process comprises multiple disciplines. During performance analysis, parameters of the design mission have to be optimized. Mission performance optimization is often challenging, especially for complex mission profiles (e.g. for unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs]) or hybrid-electric propulsion. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to find a methodology that supports aircraft performance analysis and that is applicable to complex profiles and to novel designs.


As its core element, the developed method uses a computationally efficient C++ software “Aircraft Performance Program” (APP), which performs a segment-based mission computation. APP performs a time integration of the equations of motion of a point mass in the vertical plane. APP is called via a command line interface from a flexible scripting language (Python). On top of APP’s internal radius of action optimization, state-of-the-art optimization packages (SciPy) are used.


The application of the method to a conventional climb schedule shows that the definition of the top of climb has a significant influence on the resulting optimum. Application of the method to a complex UAV mission optimization, which included maximizing the radius of action, was successful. Low computation time enables to perform large parametric studies. This greatly improves the interpretation of the results.

Research limitations/implications

The scope of the paper is limited to the methodology that allows for advanced performance analysis at the conceptual and preliminary design stages with an emphasis on novel propulsion concepts. The methodology is developed using existing, validated methods, and therefore, this paper does not contain comprehensive validation. Other disciplines, such as cost analysis, life-cycle assessment or market analysis, are not considered.

Practical implications

With the proposed method, it is possible to obtain not only the desired optimum mission performance but also off-design performance of the investigated design. A thorough analysis of the mission performance provides insight into the design’s capabilities and shortcomings, ultimately aiding in obtaining a more efficient design.


Recent developments in the area of hybrid or hybrid-electric propulsion systems have shown the need for performance computation tools aiding the related design process. The presented method is especially valuable when novel design concepts with complex mission profiles are investigated.



Immer, M. and Juretzko, P.G. (2018), "Advanced aircraft performance analysis", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 90 No. 4, pp. 627-638.



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