The aim of this study was to first establish foundational algebraic expressions that parametrically describe any advanced dual-energy storage–propulsion–power system (DESPPS) and then proceed to declare the array of fundamental independent variables necessary for the sizing and optimisation of such systems. Upon procurement of a pre-design-level integrated aircraft performance model and the subsequent verification against previously published high-end low-fidelity generated results, opportunity was taken in formulating a set of battery-based DESPPS related design axioms and sizing heuristics.
Derivation of algebraic expressions related to describing DESPPS architectures are based on first principles. Integrated performance modelling by way of full analytical fractional change transformations anchored according to a previously published Energy Specific Air Range (ESAR) figure-of-merit originally derived using the Breguet–Coffin differential equation for vehicular efficiency. Weights prediction of sub-systems that constitute the entire aircraft including DESPPS constituents emphasises an analytical foundation with minimal implementation of linear correlation factors or coefficients of proportionality. An iterative maximum take-off weight build-up algorithm emphasising expedient and stable convergence was fashioned. All prediction methods pertaining to integrated performance were verified according to previously published battery-based DESPPS results utilising high-end low-fidelity methods.
For all types of DESPPS, two new fundamental independent non-dimensional variables were declared: the Supplied Power Ratio (related to converted power afforded by each energy carrier); and, the Activation Ratio (describing the relative nature of utilisation with respect to time afforded by the motive power device associated with each energy source). For a given set of standalone sub-system energy conversion efficiencies, the parametric descriptor of degree-of-hybridisation (DoH) for Power was found to be solely a function of the Supplied Power Ratio, whereas in contrast, the DoH for Energy was found to be a more complex synthetic function described by comingling of Supplied Power Ratio and the Activation Ratio. Upon examination of the integrated aircraft performance model derived in this treatise, for purposes of investigating CO2-emissions reduction potential for battery-based DESPPS using kerosene as one of the energy sources, one salient observation was maximising the ESAR figure-of-merit is not an appropriate objective or intermediary function for future optimisation work. It was found maximising block fuel reduction through the use of maximum ESAR would lead to ever diminishing design ranges and curtailment of the payload-range working capacity of the aircraft.
Opportunity is now given to design and optimise aircraft utilising any type of DESPPS architecture. It was established that designing for battery-based DESPPS aircraft can be achieved effectively in a two-stage process that may not require aircraft morphologies more exotic than the so-called “wing-and-tube”. Firstly, a suitably projected state-of-the-art aircraft with solely advanced gas-turbine technology for the propulsion and power system needs to be produced. Thereafter, a revised version of this baseline projected aircraft now using DESPPS architecture should be conceived. A recommendation related to CO2-emissions reduction potential for battery-based DESPPS using kerosene as one of the energy sources is that during optimisation work the multi-objective formulation should comprise at least two functions: block fuel and operating economics. In all instances, it was advised that the objective function of block fuel should be tempered by an equality constraint of ESAR parity with the baseline projected aircraft using gas-turbine only technology.
A complete, unified analytical description of DESPPS that is universally applicable to any type of energy carrier has been derived and verified for battery-based dual-energy systems. Correspondingly, a set of aircraft design axioms and sizing heuristics relevant to battery-based DESPPS have been presented.
Gratitude is conveyed to Alexander Prendinger, undergraduate Masters thesis student at Bauhaus Luftfahrt, for the visualisation work presented in this article.
Isikveren, A.T., Kaiser, S., Pornet, C. and Vratny, P.C. (2014), "Pre-design strategies and sizing techniques for dual-energy aircraft", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 86 No. 6, pp. 525-542. https://doi.org/10.1108/AEAT-08-2014-0122Download as .RIS
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