Distribution systems are presented as an alternative to private shopping trips. However, the costs of order handling (order-picking, packaging) and home deliveries are still high and not always covered by the price paid by the consumer. On the whole, the profitability of on-line retailing is uncertain and the number of clients limited.
Patier, D. and Alligier, L. (2004), "On-Line Retailing in France Current and Future Effects on City Logistics", Daganzo, C.F. (Ed.) Logistics Systems for Sustainable Cities, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 381-395. https://doi.org/10.1108/9780080473222-027
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