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Major Actors in the Bologna Reform in Ukraine

Iryna Kushnir (Nottingham Institute of Education at Nottingham Trent University, UK)

The Bologna Reform in Ukraine

ISBN: 978-1-83982-115-8, eISBN: 978-1-83982-114-1

Publication date: 14 January 2021


This chapter provides the details of the political context of Ukraine and presents the details of the findings of the research conducted on the higher education actors involved in the Bologna reform in Ukraine before 2014. Four clusters of actors are discussed: the central governing bodies, their consultants, civil sector organisations and higher education institutions. All of these clusters existed before Bologna. Prior to Bologna, the relationships among them were defined by the central cluster. It fully controlled the work of higher education institutions and the consultative bodies, and it avoided the influence of the civil sector. Such power relations among these actors have been partially preserved in Bologna and have been argued by the civil sector to hinder the Europeanisation of higher education. However, the strict centralisation in the higher education system of Ukraine started to weaken, albeit marginally, during Bologna. The cooperation between the civil sector and the central governing bodies strengthened, largely, due to the partnership developed between the Ministry and the National TEMPUS/ERASMUS Plus Office. The latter actor, in its turn, has been slightly diluting the strict control of the Ministry over higher education policy-making. A gradually burgeoning and increasing cooperation among different actors, facilitated primarily by the civil sector, seems to have been accompanied by a slowly decreasing centralisation in the relationships among higher education actors in Bologna.


Kushnir, I. (2021), "Major Actors in the Bologna Reform in Ukraine", The Bologna Reform in Ukraine, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 47-78.



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Copyright © 2021 Iryna Kushnir. Published under exclusive licence by Emerald Publishing Limited