The dream scenario for thousands of businesses would be to gain the ability to get their products to market faster, and to know with some certainty that their product‐development projects would be completed on schedule. Speed and predictability are particularly elusive in new‐product development. In heavily regulated industries, for example, the best‐laid plans may fall apart when the rules change. In industries in which products are intimately related to technological advances, the new thing may become obsolete before it gets through research and development. And in some industries, a shortage of workers with specific skills can seem like a permanent guarantee of falling behind schedule.
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