The purpose of this paper is to present the full range of choices that academic institutions presently have for attending to educational results.
The approach takes the form of a systematic comparison of the eight models currently available to colleges and universities for attending to educational results, relative to four necessary organizational purposes: individual student improvement, individual student accountability, organizational improvement, and organizational accountability.
This is a time of innovation, not of standardization. As new choices become available, the standard for accountability for educational results continues to rise.
The choices, ranging from established practices to expected alternatives to unexpected innovations, differ significantly in their capacities.
Shupe, D.A. (2008), "Toward a higher standard: the changing organizational context of accountability for educational results", On the Horizon, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 72-96. https://doi.org/10.1108/10748120810874487
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