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Gender differences and job satisfaction: a study of university teachers in the United States

John O. Okpara (Department of Business Administration, Briarcliffe College, New York, USA)
Michael Squillace (Department of Business Administration, Briarcliffe College, New York, USA)
Emmanuel A. Erondu (City University of New York, Medgar Evers College, School of Business, New York, USA)

Women in Management Review

ISSN: 0964-9425

Article publication date: 1 April 2005




The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gender on the job satisfaction of US academics.


The population for this study consisted of full‐time college and university teachers listed in the “Brain Track University Index Directories of the United States Colleges and Universities”. A sampling technique was used to select the respondents surveyed for this study. A total of 1,100 questionnaires were administered to respondents chosen from 80 universities. A total of 560 usable questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 51 percent.


The findings of this research show that there are gender differences apparent in the job satisfaction levels of university teachers surveyed for this study. Female faculty were more satisfied with their work and co‐workers, whereas, their male colleagues were more satisfied with their pay, promotions, supervision, and overall job satisfaction. Results also indicated that ranks were significant in explaining gender differences and job satisfaction of the respondents.

Research limitations/implications

This research is delimited to 4 year colleges and universities. Thus, the results of this study cannot be generalized to 2 year and community colleges.

Practical implications

Findings of the study provides institutional leaders, university and college administrators, and human resources professionals with key information that would enable them to recruit, reward, promote, and retain women faculty. The finding would also enable the government address the issues concerning female academics.


This paper offers practical recommendations to higher education administrators and human resources professionals on how to enhance job satisfaction of female faculty. It also offers suggestions to how to maintain more balanced gender equity in higher education.



Okpara, J.O., Squillace, M. and Erondu, E.A. (2005), "Gender differences and job satisfaction: a study of university teachers in the United States", Women in Management Review, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 177-190.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2005, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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