A complete CFD design methodology is presented. The main components of this methodology are a general edge‐based compressible/incompressible flow solver; a continuous adjoint formulation for the gradient computations; a steepest descent technique for the change of design variables; evaluation of the gradient of the discretized flow equations with respect to mesh by finite differences; a CAD‐free pseudo‐shell surface parametrization, allowing every point on the surface to be optimized to be used as a design parameter; and a level type scheme for the movement of the interior points. Several examples are included to demonstrate the methodology developed.
Soto, O., Löhner, R. and Yang, C. (2004), "An adjoint‐based design methodology for CFD problems", International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, Vol. 14 No. 6, pp. 734-759. https://doi.org/10.1108/09615530410544292
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