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Systems approach to complex systems modelling with special regards to tourism

Tadeja Jere Lazanski (TURISTICA‐College of Tourism Studies, University of Primorska, Portorose, Slovenia)
Miroljub Kljajić (Faculty of Organisational Sciences, University of Maribor, Kranj, Slovenia)


ISSN: 0368-492X

Article publication date: 1 August 2006



The importance of context dependent modelling of complex systems, depending on the observer's point of view will be discussed. Thus, context is synonymous for the content of a problem in a frame of the goals, starting points and ways to achieve these aims. In this light, difficulties of model validation and a general method how to overcome them was discussed. The relations among subject – object – model in the light of a systems approach; Charles Sanders Peirce's triad principle and the semiotic principle of communication was presented.


The appropriateness of a system dynamics methodology, which is due to its transparency and clarity an excellent tool for modelling of complex systems.


In the paper the equivalence of different methodologies was shown, whose differences and similarities can be judged only in context of a problem and the aims of researches. For illustration, the methodology is applied to a tourism system, which possesses the typical properties of global and local organisations. A verbal description of a tourism problem is followed by a causal loop diagram, which helps to discuss the problem categorically.

Practical implications

As the methodology is implemented using quantitative model and POWERSIM tools; it offers the solution of national tourism strategy implication, selected from different scenarios.


This paper presents a simulation model of the tourism in a frame of system dynamics, developed from qualitative models, as an illustration of the discussed methodology.



Jere Lazanski, T. and Kljajić, M. (2006), "Systems approach to complex systems modelling with special regards to tourism", Kybernetes, Vol. 35 No. 7/8, pp. 1048-1058.



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