Uses a rigid viscoplastic formulation to simulate hot and cold forging processes. The finite element solution uses mixed methods in which the independent variables can be velocities, pressures and deviatoric stresses. Uses interface elements both in the mechanical and the thermal analysis, to take into account the effects of contact and friction, thermal conductivity of lubricants and heat generated by friction. The code developed includes an adaptive mesh refinement, triggered by an error estimator based on energy norms evaluated from nodal stress values, recovered from a local continuous polynomial expansion, and those given by the numerical solution. Assesses the code developed, using experimental results.
César de Sá, J., Costa Sousa, L. and Luisa Madureira, M. (1996), "Simulation model for hot and cold forging by mixed methods including adaptive mesh refinement", Engineering Computations, Vol. 13 No. 2/3/4, pp. 339-360. https://doi.org/10.1108/02644409610114602Download as .RIS
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