The Earley and Mosakowski article effectively demonstrates the importance of culture as a predictor and moderating variable in the understanding of human and organizational behavior. However, the importance of four issues is highlighted in these comments. First, a definition of culture that recognizes variability in the uniformity of common norms and values is particularly relevant for understanding organizational behavior. Second, levels of effects are particularly important in cultural research and should not be simply assumed to occur due to theoretical preferences. Third, one area that has not received sufficient attention in organizational research is that of cultural transition. That is to say, what dynamics are particularly critical at what levels of analysis when there are significant cultural changes, and how does the time available for adaptation impact these processes? Finally, while Earley and Mosakowski assert that there should be constant movement from theory to data and data to theory as a guide for determining which level effects one should assess, it is not at all clear that they have justified a position that empirical tests for alternate level effects are unnecessary if theory asserts effects at a particular level (e.g. individual, group or collective).
Alutto, J. (2002), "Culture, levels of analysis, and cultural transition", Yammarino, F. and Dansereau, F. (Ed.) The many faces of multi-level issues (Research in Multi-Level Issues, Vol. 1), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 321-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1475-9144(02)01039-1Download as .RIS
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