The purpose of the present chapter was to synthesize the research that directly compares children with and without reading disabilities on measures of working memory (WM). Working memory has considered at key element children success on reading performance and, therefore, the published literature was assessed. Twenty-eight (28) studies were included in the synthesis, which involved 207 effect sizes. The overall mean effect size estimate in favor of children without reading disabilities (RD) was –0.89 (SE=0.08). Effect sizes were submitted to a hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that children with RD were distinctively disadvantaged compared with average readers when memory manipulations required a transformation of information. Age, IQ, reading level, and domain specificity (verbal vs. visual/spatial measures) were not significant predictors of effect size estimates. The findings indicated that domain general WM differences persisted across age, and these differences operated independent of effect size differences in reading and IQ.
Jerman, O. and Lee Swanson, H. (2005), "Working Memory and Reading Disabilities: A Selective Meta-Analysis of the Literature", Scruggs, T.E. and Mastropieri, M.A. (Ed.) Cognition and Learning in Diverse Settings (Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, Vol. 18), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 1-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-004X(05)18001-XDownload as .RIS
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