Corruption is a phenomenon that is ubiquitous, but the extent and the form differ across countries. According to Transparency International, the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) in year 2001 varied from 0.4 to 9.9 (10 is completely corruption free). The average score for the 91 countries surveyed was 4.76 (with a standard deviation of 2.39). Why is there so much cross-country difference? Why are some countries virtually corruption free, but are others fraught with corruption?
Darrough, M.N. (2004), "11. SUPPLY-SIDE CONTROL OF CORRUPTION: THE U.S. FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT AND THE OECD CONVENTION", Jones, L., Schedler, K. and Mussari, R. (Ed.) Strategies for Public Management Reform (Research in Public Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 13), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 259-284. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0723-1318(04)13011-9
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