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Book part
Publication date: 27 March 2006

Sabine Sonnentag and Charlotte Fritz

In this chapter, we review empirical research evidence on the relationship between stressors and catecholamines (i.e., adrenaline and noradrenaline) and cortisol. With…

Abstract

In this chapter, we review empirical research evidence on the relationship between stressors and catecholamines (i.e., adrenaline and noradrenaline) and cortisol. With respect to acute stressors, both laboratory and field research have shown that the exposure to stressors leads to an increase in catecholamine and cortisol levels. With respect to more chronic stressors, research evidence is less consistent. Chronic mental workload was found to be related to elevated adrenaline levels. With respect to cortisol responses the interaction between workload and other variables seems to play a role. Empirical studies suggest that chronic stressors affect the responsivity to acute stressors. Research showed that after the exposure to stressors catecholamine and cortisol recovery is delayed.

Details

Employee Health, Coping and Methodologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-289-4

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Book part
Publication date: 8 January 2021

Aimée deChambeau, Ian McCullough, Melanie McGurr and Mike Monaco

This chapter discusses hurdles posed to a medium-sized public university library in the Midwest when they were asked by their Dean to create a faculty workload worksheet…

Abstract

This chapter discusses hurdles posed to a medium-sized public university library in the Midwest when they were asked by their Dean to create a faculty workload worksheet, rationale, and ultimately a set of guidelines. Faculty in other departments compute their loads using formulas based on course loads. How many hours they spend in the classroom, and how many hours they spend preparing for that time in the classroom are factored into the course loads expected for a full teaching load, with release granted in course load equivalents for research and/or service. Because librarian work does not typically involve teaching credit-bearing courses, a major challenge to constructing guidelines is equating library work with course loads. Calculating faculty workload for librarians commensurate with other faculty on campus is often complicated. To all of these challenges add the unique issues that are faced by the technical services (TS) librarian. TS work supports instruction and research but may involve little classroom contact with students, so it has even less resemblance to classroom instruction than other librarian work has. TS librarians spend their time in a wide variety of tasks. Exactly how to formulate this time in accordance with the rules for other departmental faculty is a challenge. The specific situation at this university added more complications as there was also a campus-wide mandate to ensure all workload policies are consistent and equitable.

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2020

Maie Stein, Sylvie Vincent-Höper and Sabine Gregersen

This study of leaders and followers working in day-care centers aims to use a multilevel perspective on supportive leadership to examine its role in linking workload at…

Abstract

Purpose

This study of leaders and followers working in day-care centers aims to use a multilevel perspective on supportive leadership to examine its role in linking workload at the leader level and emotional exhaustion at the follower level. Integrating theoretical work on social support with conservation of resources (COR) theory, leaders' workload is proposed to be positively related to followers' feelings of emotional exhaustion through constraining the enactment of supportive leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

Multisource survey data from 442 followers and their leaders from 68 teams were collected to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Multilevel analyses showed that leader workload was negatively related to followers' perception of supportive leadership, which, in turn, was positively related to followers' levels of emotional exhaustion. Leader workload was indirectly and positively related to follower emotional exhaustion via supportive leadership.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides initial support for the idea that work contextual factors at the leader level create boundaries for the extent to which leaders may provide support to their followers and draws attention to the accountability of leaders' work contextual factors for followers' well-being.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that organizations must not focus narrowly on training leaders on how to benefit followers but should also aim to optimize leaders' levels of workload to enable them to act in a supportive manner.

Originality/value

By considering both the receivers (i.e. followers) and providers (i.e. leaders) of support simultaneously, we take a crossover approach to COR theory and acknowledge that work contextual factors at higher organizational levels may spread to employee well-being at lower levels of the organization.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2020

Abdessamed Mogtit, Noureddine Aribi, Yahia Lebbah and Mohand Lagha

Airspace sectorization is an important task, which has a significant impact in the everyday work of air control services. Especially in recent years, because of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Airspace sectorization is an important task, which has a significant impact in the everyday work of air control services. Especially in recent years, because of the constant increase in air traffic, existing airspace sectorization techniques have difficulties to tackle the large air traffic volumes, creating imbalanced sectors and uneven workload distribution among sectors. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to find optimal airspace sectorization balancing the traffic controller workload between sectors, subject to airspace requirements.

Design/methodology/approach

A constraint programming (CP) model called equitable airspace sectorization problem (EQASP) relies on ordered weighted averaging (OWA) multiagent optimization and the parallel portfolio architecture has been developed, which integrates the equity into an existing CP approach (Trandac et al., 2005). The EQASP was evaluated and compared with the method of Trandac et al. (2005), according to the quality of workload balancing between sectors and the resolution performance. The comparison was achieved using real air traffic low-altitude network data sets of French airspace for five flight information regions for 24 h a day and the Algerian airspace for three various periods (off peak hours, peak hours and 24 h).

Findings

It has been demonstrated that the proposed EQASP model, which is based on OWA multicriteria optimization method, significantly improved both the solving performance and the workload equity between sectors, while offering strong theoretical properties of the balancing requirement. Interestingly, when solving hard instances, our parallel sectorization tool can provide, at any time, a workable solution, which satisfies all geometric constraints of sectorization.

Practical implications

This study can be used to design well-balanced air sectors in terms of workload between control units in the strategic phase. To fulfil the airspace users’ constraints, one can refer to this study to assess the capacity of each air sector (especially the overloaded sectors) and then adjust the sector’s shape to respond to the dynamic changes in traffic patterns.

Social implications

This theoretical and practical approach enables the development and support of the definition of the “Air traffic management (ATM) Concept Target” through improvements in human factors specifically (balancing workload across sectors), which contributes to raising the level of capacity, safety and efficiency (SESAR Vision of ATM 2035).

Originality/value

In their approach, the authors proposed an OWA-based multiagent optimization model, ensuring the search for the best equitable solution, without requiring user-defined balancing constraints, which enforce each sector to have a workload between two user-defined bounds (Wmin, Wmax).

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Josine van den Elsen and Brenda Vermeeren

Research findings are ambiguous regarding the effects of age on sustainable labour participation (SLP), defined as the extent to which people are able and willing to…

Abstract

Purpose

Research findings are ambiguous regarding the effects of age on sustainable labour participation (SLP), defined as the extent to which people are able and willing to conduct their current and future work. The purpose of this paper is to contribute by examining age effects on SLP by focusing on the moderating role of workload.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method study was conducted in 2018. First, a survey was distributed among a sample of 2,149 employees of the Dutch central government. Second, 12 interviews with public sector employees took place to gain greater insight into the quantitative data collected.

Findings

Three components that reflect an employee’s SLP were studied: vitality, work ability and employability. The quantitative results, in general, showed that SLP decreased with ageing. However, in contrast to the hypothesis, the results showed a significant positive relationship between age and energy. Moreover, relationships between an employee’s age and certain aspects of their SLP were moderated by workload. The interviews helped to interpret these results.

Practical implications

The findings demonstrate that some of the older worker stereotypes are unfounded, and the important practical implications of these are discussed.

Originality/value

Earlier research has produced conflicting findings regarding the relationship between age and (aspects of) SLP. By investigating several aspects of SLP in separate regressions within this research, the specific influences of age have become clearer. Furthermore, the research provides fresh insights into the relationship between age and SLP by including moderating effects of workload.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 December 2019

Daniela Fishbein, Siddhartha Nambiar, Kendall McKenzie, Maria Mayorga, Kristen Miller, Kevin Tran, Laura Schubel, Joseph Agor, Tracy Kim and Muge Capan

Workload is a critical concept in the evaluation of performance and quality in healthcare systems, but its definition relies on the perspective (e.g. individual…

Abstract

Purpose

Workload is a critical concept in the evaluation of performance and quality in healthcare systems, but its definition relies on the perspective (e.g. individual clinician-level vs unit-level workload) and type of available metrics (e.g. objective vs subjective measures). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of objective measures of workload associated with direct care delivery in tertiary healthcare settings, with a focus on measures that can be obtained from electronic records to inform operationalization of workload measurement.

Design/methodology/approach

Relevant papers published between January 2008 and July 2018 were identified through a search in Pubmed and Compendex databases using the Sample, Phenomenon of Interest, Design, Evaluation, Research Type framework. Identified measures were classified into four levels of workload: task, patient, clinician and unit.

Findings

Of 30 papers reviewed, 9 used task-level metrics, 14 used patient-level metrics, 7 used clinician-level metrics and 20 used unit-level metrics. Key objective measures of workload include: patient turnover (n=9), volume of patients (n=6), acuity (n=6), nurse-to-patient ratios (n=5) and direct care time (n=5). Several methods for operationalization of these metrics into measurement tools were identified.

Originality/value

This review highlights the key objective workload measures available in electronic records that can be utilized to develop an operational approach for quantifying workload. Insights gained from this review can inform the design of processes to track workload and mitigate the effects of increased workload on patient outcomes and clinician performance.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Izhar Oplatka

In order to fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge about the characteristics of principal workload, the purpose of this paper is to explore the components of…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge about the characteristics of principal workload, the purpose of this paper is to explore the components of principal workload as well as its determinants and the coping strategies commonly used by principals to face this personal state.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 principals, all from the elementary and secondary educational systems of Israel. The analysis followed the principles of qualitative research.

Findings

Four subjectively held constructs of principal workload, main sources of this workload, and the key strategies used by principals to face this workload were found in this study.

Practical implications

It is recommended to strengthen school autonomy, increase the number of positions of middle management, prepare future principals for the heavy workload, and encourage supportive superiors who are sensitive to this issue.

Originality/value

This study fills the gap in theoretical knowledge concerning principal workload, assuming that the particular characteristics of the school organization have some unique impact on this personal state. It also enables us to identify the types of this personal state occurring in educational organizations from the subjective perspectives of school members and stakeholders, thereby broadening the understanding of employee workload in various settings, including educational arenas.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 55 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2004

Koji Murai, Yuji Hayashi, Noriko Nagata and Seiji Inokuchi

A human navigator attempts to handle the ship for safe navigation by judging navigational information on own ship’s condition, targets and current‐wind effects. He/she has…

Abstract

A human navigator attempts to handle the ship for safe navigation by judging navigational information on own ship’s condition, targets and current‐wind effects. He/she has the responsibility of human lives and the economic values to judge. The human navigator maintains high mental workload during the navigational watch keeping. Therefore, we need to develop a support system to reduce the mental workload with human‐system cooperation based on the navigator’s KANSEI, and we must research an index to assess the mental workload for the first step, as the research on the KANSEI of ship’s navigator is not yet available in the world. In addition we depend on the professional’s experience for the assessment. The purpose of this paper is to find characteristics of the mental workload using heart rate variability. The experiment is carried out in six types of sea area on the west side of Japan. The subject is the chief officer of a training ship at Kobe University.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Paola Spagnoli and Cristian Balducci

Organizational change eliciting negative outcomes might play a role in the development of workplace bullying. The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and the…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational change eliciting negative outcomes might play a role in the development of workplace bullying. The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and the interaction effect of two particular negative outcomes of organizational change, such as high workload and job insecurity, on workplace bullying.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants in the study were 134 Italian workers who had just experienced an organizational change. A multiple regression analysis, using the stepwise method, was conducted to test for whether workload, job insecurity, and their interactions predicted workplace bullying.

Findings

Results show that high level of workload is related to workplace bullying; job insecurity is not directly related to workplace bullying; the interaction between high workload and job insecurity enhanced the risk for workplace bullying. In particular, when the level of job insecurity is high there is a stronger relationship between workload and bullying, compared to when the level of job insecurity is low.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional design applied does not allow inference on the causal relationships between the predictors and outcomes.

Practical implications

In order to decrease the occurrence of bullying, managers should avoid that employees experience high workload after organizational change by carefully designing the reengineering process. Additionally, they should try to reduce, as far as possible, employee perceptions of job insecurity.

Originality/value

The focus of the study is on the “survivors” after organizational change and on particular interaction of workplace bullying’s causes that could extremely enhance the risk of the phenomena.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Alexander Bruggen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of workload on quantitative and qualitative job performance. Different levels of workload can affect performance of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of workload on quantitative and qualitative job performance. Different levels of workload can affect performance of employees, and it is important for firms to assess the effect of this in order to improve capacity decisions. The literature is not entirely clear on the relationship and calls for further empirical evidence on that matter.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses field data from a mid-sized grocery supplier. In total, 9,210 observations of 27 employees over three years and eight months are analyzed with different statistical models. Employees all work in the same department so that it is a very homogenous data set.

Findings

Results show that there is an inverted U-shape relationship between workload and performance. Output of employees increases up to a certain point after which it decreases. Similarly, the quality of performance is highest under moderate levels of workload, which provides evidence against a tradeoff between quantity and quality.

Research limitations/implications

The study uses a unique set of data from one firm, which limits generalizability, but adds to an important stream of literature.

Practical implications

Results show how workload has a direct effect on performance. Consequently, firms need to balance the workload in order to be able to maximize the performance of their employees.

Originality/value

Despite the relevance of the topic, there is hardly any empirical evidence on the relationship between workload and performance. This study thus contributes to the management literature and provides significant evidence on an inverted U-shape between workload and quantitative performance.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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