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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Robert D. Hisrich and Sevgi Ayse Öztürk

While research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, little has been done in this area in non‐OECD and developing economies. This research focuses on…

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Abstract

While research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, little has been done in this area in non‐OECD and developing economies. This research focuses on the characteristics, performance, and problems of women entrepreneurs in one developing economy – Turkey. The results indicate that while the women entrepreneurs exhibited many similarities with their counterparts in other countries they differed in other aspects such as in their reasons and motivation for starting a venture and problems encountered. These differences reflect in part the effect of a different social structure in a developing economy, particularly the impact of occupational segregation, wage disparity, and participation in a non‐supported sector of the economy. These findings suggest that the theories regarding women entrepreneurs based on developed economies need to be carefully examined before being applied to non‐OECD and developing economies.

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Journal of Management Development, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2021

Pooja Jha and Md. Moddassir Alam

This study investigates the antecedents of women entrepreneurs’ performance in an emerging economy. Based on the review of extant literature, six antecedents of women

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the antecedents of women entrepreneurs’ performance in an emerging economy. Based on the review of extant literature, six antecedents of women entrepreneurs’ performance, namely, motivation, networking, socio-cultural, business environment, training and development, and financials were proposed and subsequently empirically examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Gaps in the literature were identified, based on which the theoretical background of the study was formulated. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to confirm the factor-item structure. The impact of explanatory variables was investigated using the structural equation modeling (SEM) based path analysis.

Findings

The study concludes that motivation, networking, socio-cultural, business environment, training and development, and financials have a significant positive influence on the performance of the women entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

There is a dearth of quality research that holistically investigates the key antecedents of performance among women entrepreneurs. Most existing studies have not considered the possible antecedents of performance concomitantly. Additionally, the relationships have been measured individually rather than at the construct level. Further, a majority of the existing studies investigating the performance of women entrepreneurs have been confined to settings within developed countries. By providing insight into the antecedents of women entrepreneurs’ performance elsewhere, the present study attempts to bridge these identified gaps. This study is expected to advance the knowledge about the factors influencing the performance of women entrepreneurs in emerging economies such as India. These insights will likely be valuable when creating policies related to this crucial aspect of economic development.

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2021

Elin Kubberød, Sally Jones and Inger Beate Pettersen

The influence of gender on high-tech entrepreneurship is of growing interest worldwide, as scholars argue that women face gendered barriers specific to this field…

Abstract

Purpose

The influence of gender on high-tech entrepreneurship is of growing interest worldwide, as scholars argue that women face gendered barriers specific to this field. Although some gender-focussed research exists on the interplay of context and entrepreneurial learning, these issues have yet to be intensively studied, and the research aims to address this gap.

Design/methodology/approach

The research draws upon empirical evidence from the entrepreneurial learning of nine women opportunity entrepreneurs in the high-technology sector in Norway. It employs a qualitative phenomenological approach, with retrospective and in-depth interviews to capture and analyse the entrepreneurs' lived experiences and learning histories.

Findings

The entrepreneurs in this study highlight gendered learning experiences, leading them to make conscious and strategic decisions of both alignment and resistance to negotiate their enterprise in a highly masculine sector. Their prior learning histories of not belonging seem to underpin their preparedness for entrepreneurship in the sector. Counter to prevailing theorizing, not belonging is an enabling condition, allowing women entrepreneurs to subvert and challenge a highly masculinized context. This condition empowers them to mobilize their “otherness” to create change within their own ventures and make the rules on their own terms.

Originality/value

This interdisciplinary research deepens the understanding of the interplay between gender, entrepreneurial learning and context through the concept of belonging and extends theorization of the gendered dynamics in entrepreneurial learning histories. The paper proposes a framework of gendered entrepreneurial learning in a masculinized industry context, which highlights important implications for future gender and entrepreneurial learning research.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2021

Swati Shastri, Shruti Shastri, Abhishek Pareek and Riddhi Sudhan Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the motivational drives of women entrepreneurs and highlight the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs operating micro, small and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the motivational drives of women entrepreneurs and highlight the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs operating micro, small and medium enterprises from an institutional perspective in Rajasthan – a patriarchal state in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on data collected from a questionnaire survey conducted from July 2018 to January 2019 on 347 women entrepreneurs operating in seven districts of Rajasthan. Descriptive and factor analysis were used to find the major motivations and challenges of the entrepreneurs.

Findings

The findings indicate that intrinsic factors, namely, growth, creativity, autonomy and rejecting stereotypical gender identity are primary motivations driving women entrepreneurship in Rajasthan. Further, institutions pose challenges rather than offering a motivational drive to female entrepreneurs. The two most critical challenges, which the women entrepreneurs face are gender stereotypes and the lack of social capital. In patriarchal societies, entrepreneurial roles are considered masculine than feminine. Furthermore, cultural norms reflected in gender-specific role distribution result in the problem of work-life balance. The lack of both bonding and bridging social capital in terms of family support and networks, respectively, also reflects an unfavorable informal institutional environment.

Originality/value

The study adds to the sparse empirical literature on the motivations and challenges of women entrepreneurs in the Indian context. This study explores the motivations and challenges of female entrepreneurs from an institutional perspective for India in general and Rajasthan, in particular, using a large, heterogeneous sample using factor analysis.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Sandrine Bonin, Wafa Singh, Veena Suresh, Tarek Rashed, Kuiljeit Uppaal, Rajiv Nair and Rao R. Bhavani

The study aims to co-create a “priority action roadmap for women's economic empowerment” based on women's top priorities to charting recovery directions. Doing so…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to co-create a “priority action roadmap for women's economic empowerment” based on women's top priorities to charting recovery directions. Doing so contributes to the growing body of knowledge on COVID-19 literature in at least four areas: assessing COVID-19 impacts on women entrepreneurs; mapping these impacts with four interdependent women's entrepreneurial ecosystem components; innovating a co-creation methodology based on remote participatory research; and providing a replicable model to perform action-oriented research in the context of COVID-19 impacts.

Design/methodology/approach

A co-creation methodology is proposed, combining systems-thinking and remote participatory research to engage women entrepreneurs and institutional stakeholders to prioritize impact, response actions and recovery needs in the wake of COVID-19. A ranking exercise using the analytic hierarchy process was used to derive ranking and assess user inputs' consistency.

Findings

The study exemplifies the integration of participatory methods and mathematical tool to engage stakeholders in prioritizing recovery work. PARWEE action items ranked by entrepreneurs and vetted by institutional stakeholders cover: access to finances, capacity building, health care, public and private partnership, marketing opportunities and formation of active advocacy groups to voice out women entrepreneurs' needs to institutional stakeholders. Results show a slight difference in the ranking of priority actions between experience owners and fresh starters.

Originality/value

This study innovated a new co-creation methodology for remotely engaging stakeholders of the women's entrepreneurial ecosystem, which is grounded in evidence and provides a replicable model for performing action-oriented research.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Book part
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Ufi Cullen and Chris Archer-Brown

The small size of female founded and owned businesses is discussed as a weakness towards business survival and growth and also as a solid foundation for sustainable…

Abstract

The small size of female founded and owned businesses is discussed as a weakness towards business survival and growth and also as a solid foundation for sustainable innovation (SI) through maintaining stronger ties with suppliers and customers. In smaller businesses, the closeness to the key stakeholders facilitates knowledge transfer and internalisation of knowledge which leads to faster decision making and creating SI. This paper aims to examine networking strategies of established female entrepreneurs and to develop better insights into the extent of social dialogue, collaboration and cooperation maintained between the entrepreneur and her network contacts towards SI and value generation. Successful business sustainability strategies and subsequent outcomes of established female entrepreneurs are also examined. This paper presents the findings from quantitative survey-based research conducted with 240 established female entrepreneurs from the UK and Turkey (120 from each). The respondents were selected on the basis of business survival and success. National culture is used to identify the established authoritative guidelines for social behaviour. Hofstede’s Culture Model is applied to the case countries to describe the sociocultural institutional context. From the business sustainability strategies (BSS) perspective, the findings show that the studied elements of established female entrepreneurs vary between two different cultural environments. And yet, the both group reported a high level of social dialogue, collaboration and cooperation with their network contacts although they demonstrated fundamentally different networking patterns within the context of type of contact; networking motivation; frequency of contact; and helpfulness of contact. Also established female entrepreneurs’ business sustainability strategies show significant differences between the case countries linked to the level of power distance, individualism and uncertainty avoidance culture dimensions. The paper generates valuable insights into internationalisation strategies for female entrepreneurs and possible areas for facilitation for policy makers.

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Victoria L. Crittenden and Kimberly Harris Bliton

Direct selling was founded on the philosophy of coaching people on how to successfully build a business from the ground up, and women comprise a large percentage of these…

Abstract

Direct selling was founded on the philosophy of coaching people on how to successfully build a business from the ground up, and women comprise a large percentage of these direct selling entrepreneurs. In this chapter, we highlight the empowering benefits of direct selling. First, we focus on women micro-entrepreneurs who want to build their own small businesses, but on a limited scale while maintaining flexible schedules and work-life satisfaction. These women can benefit from the direct selling opportunity in terms of capitalization, formal structures, mentoring, income, self-efficacy, social capital, and life skills. Second, we profile women entrepreneurs who are building their own product organizations and have chosen direct selling as a go-to-market strategy for access to consumers. Three consistent attributes observed across these women are authenticity, affective commitment, and passion.

Details

Go-to-Market Strategies for Women Entrepreneurs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-289-4

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Murat Erogul, Salvador Barragan and Caroline Essers

Understanding belonging provides a better insight into the structural, political, cultural and gendered elements of entrepreneurship. This paper aims to focus on Mexican…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding belonging provides a better insight into the structural, political, cultural and gendered elements of entrepreneurship. This paper aims to focus on Mexican female entrepreneurs’ (MFE) experiences in managing material and affective aspects of entrepreneurial belonging during the start-up and transition phase to become an established business owner.

Design/methodology/approach

The narrative analysis is based on qualitative interview data with 11 MFE in Mexico.

Findings

The analysis reveals that MFEs’ sense of belonging evolves from self-oriented to more socially-oriented identity claims. In the former, the need to “fit in” and achieve material aspects of belonging is intertwined with gender and family responsibilities. In the latter, the need to “stand out” and achieve affective aspects of belonging is intertwined with validating entrepreneurial achievements by challenging gendered assumptions and helping others through the notion of “sisterhood.”

Originality/value

The paper extends the understanding of the relation of material and affective aspects of belonging as an “evolving” process from the nascent stage to the established stage of entrepreneurship. Within the evolving process of entrepreneurial belonging, a shift from material to affective aspects unveils a theoretical framework that relates belonging, gender and entrepreneurship in context. This process seems to regulate entrepreneur’s agency in what they interpret as acceptable while standing up against challenges and legitimizing belonging through the emergence of a “sisterhood.”

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Gul Afshan, Subhan Shahid and Muhammad Nawaz Tunio

COVID-19 pandemic triggered unexpected crises, which were beyond the imaginations of a common man. It changed the order of routine life and the business world. In this…

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Abstract

Purpose

COVID-19 pandemic triggered unexpected crises, which were beyond the imaginations of a common man. It changed the order of routine life and the business world. In this challenging condition, the survival of the small business was at high risk. Following experiential learning theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore women's entrepreneurial learning obtained during the COVID-19 pandemic, the challenges experienced by them and strategies undertaken to transform businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore Pakistani women entrepreneurs' lived experiences and learning during the COVID-19, researchers used a qualitative interview design. The interviewees reported their experiences about the effects of COVID-19 on their business and entrepreneurial learning from such a crisis.

Findings

The findings of the study indicate new fractions of knowledge from the novel learning of the female entrepreneurs throughout the experience of the COVID-19. The transformation from manual business dealings and financial transactions to virtual dealing and the online transaction was the addition of novel learning. Furthermore, the analysis provides insights into the challenges experienced by women entrepreneurs, strategies undertaken and lessons learned from COVID-19. The life lessons learned showed the importance of technical skills and their business operations during the crisis.

Research limitations/implications

This study is very specific in its context and limitations of this study offers new avenue for research to extend study in different perspectives. First, interviews were conducted from women entrepreneurs running businesses in sub-urban cities of Pakistan, where study can be extended to include both male and female in a comparative study which can expose new dimensions. Second, this study is conducted in the sub-urban areas of the Sindh province of Pakistan, which can be extended to other areas of the country because Pakistan is multicultural and multilingual, which offer different gender specific factors for entrepreneurial activities in general terms but in case of the Covid-19 situation, there exists great variations and social stratifications. Third, this study can be extended to other developing or developed countries or comparative study can provide a new flavor of knowledge.

Practical implications

The study's finding offers few implications for the entrepreneurs, societies and government at large. Although the pandemic crisis has had devastating effects on health and lifestyle activities, there is always a ray of coming to innovative approaches to fulfill the entrepreneurial desires and serve the community. Thus, entrepreneurs are encouraged to contribute to the economy as a part of society through their sustainable products and services for the greater good. There is also a need for some social policies to find entrepreneurial ways to deal with the COVID-19 crisis that integrates value co-creation for society (Ratten, 2020b). Government and society should also intervene and play their role to encourage women entrepreneurs to feel a sense of empowerment, contribute to family income, alleviate poverty, create jobs and help in economic growth.

Originality/value

This study's unique contribution and origin are to explore the COVID-19-related entrepreneurial learning experiences of women entrepreneurs in a developing country (Pakistan). Moreover, this study theoretically contributes to the development of experiential learning theory by expanding its insights during COVID-19.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Kaltrina Kajtazi

This research aims to reveal the challenges faced by female entrepreneurs in Kosovo, emphasizing the challenge of work–life balance (WLB). As deliberated by many authors…

Abstract

This research aims to reveal the challenges faced by female entrepreneurs in Kosovo, emphasizing the challenge of work–life balance (WLB). As deliberated by many authors, concerning the term work–life balance, it is defined as the opportunity of balancing between personal life on the one hand and work on the other. The three research questions of this chapter were: do women entrepreneurs face difficulties on work–life balancing? do they involve other family members in business operations in order to help work–life balancing? and is their marital status a factor on WLB? This issue is more or less studied in the context of Kosovo. This is the reason why this research is conducted in Kosovo, with the sample of 24 female entrepreneurs. 21 questions of interviews are designed accordingly to the three research questions. The findings indicated that the majority of female entrepreneurs face difficulties on work–life balancing, but to overcome this challenge, they engage their family members on business activities and also, women who are married, especially those with more than one child have more difficulties on this aspect than those unmarried.

Fulfilling the gaps relied by previous studies and recommendations to female entrepreneurs in terms of better management of life and work simultaneously, it is considered the greatest contribution of this investigation.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Women and Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-327-7

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