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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Lingjiu Zhou, Meng Liu, Zhengwei Wang, Demin Liu and Yongzhi Zhao

This study analyzes the blade channel vortices inside Francis runner with a particular focus on the identification of different types of vortices and their causes.

Abstract

Purpose

This study analyzes the blade channel vortices inside Francis runner with a particular focus on the identification of different types of vortices and their causes.

Design/methodology/approach

A single-flow passage of the Francis runner with refined mesh and periodic boundary conditions was used for the numerical simulation to reduce the computational resource. The steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations closed with the k-ω shear–stress transport (SST) turbulence model were solved by ANSYS CFX to determine the flow field. The vortices were identified by the second largest eigenvalue of velocity.

Findings

Four types of vortices were identified inside the runner. Three types were related to the inlet flow. The last one (Type 4) was caused by the reversed flow near the runner crown and had the lowest pressure inside the core near the runner outlet. Thus, in the blade channel vortex inception line, Type 4 vortex would appear earlier than the other three ones. Besides, the Type 4 vortex emerged from the crown and shed toward the blade-trailing edge. And its location moved from near the crown down to near the band when the unit speed increased or unit discharge decreased.

Research limitations/implications

Although the refined mesh was used and the main vortices in the Francis runner were well predicted, the current mesh is not enough to accurately predict the lowest pressure in the channel vortex core.

Practical/implications

This knowledge is instructive in the runner blade design and troubleshooting related to the channel vortex.

Originality/value

This study gives an overview of the main observed blade channel vortices and their causes, and points out the important role the reversed flow plays in the formation of blade channel vortices. This knowledge is instructive in the runner blade design and troubleshooting related to blade channel vortices.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Haiming Huang, Guo Huang, Xiaoliang Xu and Weijie Li

Relevant analyses are presented on the base of the compressible vortex method for simulating the development of two or three co-rotating vortices with different…

Abstract

Purpose

Relevant analyses are presented on the base of the compressible vortex method for simulating the development of two or three co-rotating vortices with different characteristic Mach numbers. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to having vorticity and dilatation properties, the vortex particles also carry density, enthalpy, and entropy. Taking co-rotating vortices in two-dimensional unsteady compressible flow for an example, truncation of unbounded domains via a nonreflecting boundary condition was considered in order to make the method computationally efficient.

Findings

For two identical vortices, the effect of the vortex Mach number on merging process is not evident; if two vortices have the same circulation rather than different radiuses, the vorticity and dilatation fields of the vortex under a vortex Mach number will be absorbed by the vortex under a higher vortex Mach number. For three vortices, if the original arrangement of the vortices is changed, the evolvement of the vorticity and dilatation fields is different.

Originality/value

The paper reveals new mechanism of the three co-rotating vortices by a feasible compressible vortex method.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Jing Yang, Lingjiu Zhou and Zhengwei Wang

The vortex ropes in draft tube of Francis turbine always cause fluctuation and vibration, which consequently threaten the safety and stability of hydro turbines. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The vortex ropes in draft tube of Francis turbine always cause fluctuation and vibration, which consequently threaten the safety and stability of hydro turbines. The purpose of this paper is to use a cavitation flow computational method to simulate spiral vortex ropes under part load conditions and columnar vortex ropes under high-load conditions in draft tube. The unsteady cavitating flow characteristics in draft tube and its interaction with runner cavitation were analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

The calculation method was verified by cavitation simulation around a 3D hydrofoil. The results show that the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model with the Zwart-Gerber-Blemari cavitation model have comparative advantage in cavitation simulations whether from capture of cavity shape or prediction of pressure changes. So it was chosen to simulate the two-phase cavitation flow in Francis turbine. The boundary conditions for inlet and outlet were set to inlet total pressure and outlet static pressure. The finite volume method with the central difference was adopted to discretize the equations.

Findings

The calculated Thoma number agreed well with the experimental data. The vortex rope diameter and length increased with the cavitation development for both of the two types of vortex ropes conditions. The maximum peak-to-peak values of pressure pulsations located in the draft tube elbow part under all of the Thoma numbers conditions. Under spiral vortex rope conditions, the pressure pulsation in the same section of draft tube cone show obviously phase shift. The vortex rope affects the development of runner cavitation, which induces the symmetric and axisymmetric cavitation region in the suction side of blades for spiral and columnar vortex rope condition, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The mesh independence had been checked only in non-cavitation flow; in addition, the mesh density did not well satisfy the requirements of LES due to the limitations of computing power. The higher mesh density on a simplified model with one blade flow path and the entire draft tube may be helpful for obtaining more precise results.

Originality/value

The spiral and columnar vortex ropes in a Francis turbine were compared and analyzed. The annular hydraulic jump appeared in the columnar vortex rope conditions has little effects on the pressure pulsations. The uneven flow field caused by spiral vortex led to the asymmetric cavitation development.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Faezeh Nejati Barzoki, Ghanbar Ali Sheikhzadeh, Morteza Khoshvaght Aliabadi and Ali Akbar Abbasian Arani

The purpose of this paper is to investigate thermohydraulic characteristics of turbulent flow of water (4,000 = Re = 10,000) in a rectangular channel equipped with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate thermohydraulic characteristics of turbulent flow of water (4,000 = Re = 10,000) in a rectangular channel equipped with perforated chevron plat-fin (PCPF) with different vortex generators (VGs) shapes.

Design/methodology/approach

First, three general shapes of VGs including rectangular, triangular and half circle, are compared to each other. Then, the various shapes of rectangular VGs, (horizontal, vertical and square) and triangular VGs, (forward, backward and symmetric) are evaluated. To comprehensively evaluate the thermohydraulic performance of the PCPF with various VG shapes, the relationship between the Colburn factor and the friction factor (j/f) is presented, then a performance index (η) is applied using these factors.

Findings

Results show that the enhanced models of the PCPF, which are equipped with VGs, have higher values of j/f ratio and η as compared with the reference model (R). Further, the half-circle VG with the lowest pressure drop values (about 2.4% and 4.9%, averagely as compared with the S and ST vortex generators), shows the highest thermohydraulic performance among the proposed shapes. The maximum of performance index of 1.14 is found for the HC vortex generator at Re = 4,000. It is also found that the square and forward triangular VGs, have the best thermohydraulic performance among the rectangular and triangular VGs respectively and the highest performance index of 1.13 and 1.11 are reported for these VGs.

Originality/value

The thermohydraulic performance of the PCPF with different vortex generators VGs shapes have been investigated.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2021

Jianghong Zhao and Xin Li

Vortex grippers use tangential nozzles to form vortex flow and are able to grip a workpiece without any physical contact, thus avoiding any unintentional workpiece damage…

Abstract

Purpose

Vortex grippers use tangential nozzles to form vortex flow and are able to grip a workpiece without any physical contact, thus avoiding any unintentional workpiece damage. This study aims to use experimental and theoretical methods to investigate the effects of nozzle diameter on the performance.

Design/methodology/approach

First, various suction force-distance curves were developed to analyze the effects of nozzle diameter on the maximum suction force. This study determines the tangential velocity distribution on the workpiece surface by substituting the experimental pressure distribution data into simplified Navier-Stokes equations and then used these equations to analyze the effects on the flow field. Subsequent theoretical analysis of the distribution of pressure and circumferential velocity further validated the experimental results. Next, by rearranging these relationships, the study considered the effects of nozzle diameter on the inherent vortex gripper characteristics. In addition, this study developed various suction force-energy consumption curves to analyze the effects of nozzle diameter.

Findings

The results of this study indicated that the vortex gripper’s circumferential velocity and maximum suction force decrease with increasing nozzle diameter. Nozzle diameter did not significantly affect the inherent frequency of the vortex gripper-workpiece inertial system or the corresponding suspension stability of the workpiece. However, an increase in nozzle diameter did effectively increase the vortex gripper’s suspension region. Finally, as the nozzle diameter increased, the energy required to achieve the same maximum suction force decreased.

Originality/value

This study’s findings can enable optimization of nozzle design in emerging vortex gripper designs and facilitate informed selection among existing vortex grippers.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2020

Khushairi Amri Kasim, Shabudin Mat, Iskandar Shah Ishak and Shuhaimi Mansor

This study aims to investigate the effects of propeller locations on the aerodynamic characteristics of a generic 55° swept angle sharp-edged delta wing unmanned aerial…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effects of propeller locations on the aerodynamic characteristics of a generic 55° swept angle sharp-edged delta wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) model.

Design/methodology/approach

A generic delta-winged UAV model has been designed and fabricated to investigate the aerodynamic properties of the model when the propeller is placed at three different locations. In this research, the propeller has been placed at three different positions on the wing, namely, front, middle and rear. The experiments were conducted in a closed-circuit low-speed wind tunnel at speeds of 20 and 25 m/s corresponding to 0.6 × 106 and 0.8 × 106 Reynolds numbers, respectively. The propeller speed was set at constant 6,000 RPM and the angles of attack were varied from 0° to 20° for all cases. During the experiment, two measurement techniques were used on the wing, which were the steady balance measurement and surface pressure measurement.

Findings

The results show that the locations of the propeller have significant influence on the lift, drag and pitching moment of the UAV. Another important observation obtained from this study is that the location of the propeller can affect the development of the vortex and vortex breakdown. The results also show that the propeller advance ratio can also influence the characteristics of the primary vortex developed on the wing. Another main observation was that the size of the primary vortex decreases if the propeller advance ratio is increased.

Practical implications

There are various forms of UAVs, one of them is in the delta-shaped planform. The data obtained from this experiment can be used to understand the aerodynamic properties and best propeller locations for the similar UAV aircrafts.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, the surface pressure data available for a non-slender delta-shaped UAV model is limited. The data presented in this paper would provide a better insight into the flow characteristics of generic delta winged UAV at three different propeller locations.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 15 September 2020

Nuno Vinha, David Vallespin, Eusebio Valero, Valentin de Pablo and Santiago Cuesta-Lopez

The exponential growth in computational capabilities and the increasing reliability of current simulation tools have fostered the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD…

Abstract

Purpose

The exponential growth in computational capabilities and the increasing reliability of current simulation tools have fostered the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the design of pioneering aircraft engine architectures, such as the counter rotating open rotor (CROR) engine. Today, this design process is led by tight performance and noise constraints from a very early stage, thus requiring deep investigations of the aerodynamic and acoustic behaviour of the fluid flow. The purpose of this study is to track the trajectory of tip vortices, which is of critical importance to understand and prevent potential vortex–blade interactions with subsequent rows, as this condition strongly influences the aerodynamic and structural performance and acoustic footprints of the engine.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a flow feature detection methodology is applied to a particular CROR test case with the goal of visualizing and tracking the development of these coherent structures from the tip of front rotating blades. The suitability and performance of four typical region-based methodologies and one line-based (LB) criteria are firstly evaluated. Then, two novel seeding methodologies are presented as an attempt to improve the performance of the LB algorithm previously investigated.

Findings

It was demonstrated that the new seeding algorithms increase the probability of the selected seeds to grow into a tip vortex line and reduce the user’s dependence upon the selection of candidate seeds, providing faster and more accurate answers during the design-to-noise iterative process.

Originality/value

Apart from the new vortex detection initialization methodologies, the paper also attempts to assist the user in the endeavour of extracting rotating structures from their own CFD simulations.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2020

David J. Talarico, Aaron Mazzeo and Mitsunori Denda

Advancements in aerospace technologies, which rely on unsteady fluid dynamics, are being hindered by a lack of easy to use, computationally efficient unsteady…

Abstract

Purpose

Advancements in aerospace technologies, which rely on unsteady fluid dynamics, are being hindered by a lack of easy to use, computationally efficient unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Existing CFD platforms are capable of handling unsteady flapping, but the time, money and expertise required to run even a basic flapping simulation make design iteration and optimization prohibitively expensive for the average researcher.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present paper, a remedy to model the effects of viscosity is introduced to the original vortex method, in which the pitching moment amplitude grew over time for simulations involving multiple flapping cycles. The new approach described herein lumps far-field wake vortices to mimic the vortex decay, which is shown to improve the accuracy of the solution while keeping the pitching moment amplitude under control, especially for simulations involving many flapping cycles.

Findings

In addition to improving the accuracy of the solution, the new method greatly reduces the computation time for simulations involving many flapping cycles. The solution of the original vortex method and the new method are compared to published Navier–Stokes solver data and show very good agreement.

Originality/value

By utilizing a novel unsteady vortex method, which has been designed specifically to handle the highly unsteady flapping wing problems, it has been shown that the time to compute a solution is reduced by several orders of magnitude (Denda et al., 2016). Despite the success of the vortex method, especially for a small number of flapping cycles, the solution deteriorates as the number of flapping cycles increases due to the inherent lack of viscosity in the vortex method.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Van Luc Nguyen, Tomohiro Degawa and Tomomi Uchiyama

This paper aims to provide discussions of a numerical method for bubbly flows and the interaction between a vortex ring and a bubble plume.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide discussions of a numerical method for bubbly flows and the interaction between a vortex ring and a bubble plume.

Design/methodology/approach

Small bubbles are released into quiescent water from a cylinder tip. They rise under the buoyant force, forming a plume. A vortex ring is launched vertically upward into the bubble plume. The interactions between the vortex ring and the bubble plume are numerically simulated using a semi-Lagrangian–Lagrangian approach composed of a vortex-in-cell method for the fluid phase and a Lagrangian description of the gas phase.

Findings

A vortex ring can transport the bubbles surrounding it over a distance significantly depending on the correlative initial position between the bubbles and the core center. The motion of some bubbles is nearly periodic and gradually extinguishes with time. These bubble trajectories are similar to two-dimensional-helix shapes. The vortex is fragmented into multiple regions with high values of Q, the second invariant of velocity gradient tensor, settling at these regional centers. The entrained bubbles excite a growth rate of the vortex ring's azimuthal instability with a formation of the second- and third-harmonic oscillations of modes of 16 and 24, respectively.

Originality/value

A semi-Lagrangian–Lagrangian approach is applied to simulate the interactions between a vortex ring and a bubble plume. The simulations provide the detail features of the interactions.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Van Luc Nguyen, Tomohiro Degawa, Tomomi Uchiyama and Kotaro Takamure

The purpose of this study is to design numerical simulations of bubbly flow around a cylinder to better understand the characteristics of flow around a rigid obstacle.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to design numerical simulations of bubbly flow around a cylinder to better understand the characteristics of flow around a rigid obstacle.

Design/methodology/approach

The bubbly flow around a circular cylinder was numerically simulated using a semi-Lagrangian–Lagrangian method composed of a vortex-in-cell method for the liquid phase and a Lagrangian description of the gas phase. Additionally, a penalization method was applied to account for the cylinder inside the flow. The slip condition of the bubbles on the cylinder’s surface was enforced, and the outflow conditions were applied to the liquid flow at the far field.

Findings

The simulation clarified the characteristics of a bubbly flow around a circular cylinder. The bubbles were shown to move around and separate from both sides of the cylinder, because of entrainment by the liquid shear layers. Once the bubbly flow fully developed, the bubbles distributed into groups and were dispersed downstream of the cylinder. A three-dimensional vortex structure of various scales was also shown to form downstream, whereas a quasi-stable two-dimensional vortex structure was observed upstream. Overall, the proposed method captured the characteristics of a bubbly flow around a cylinder well.

Originality/value

A semi-Lagrangian–Lagrangian approach was applied to simulate a bubbly flow around a circular cylinder. The simulations provided the detail features of these flow phenomena.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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