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Book part
Publication date: 29 March 2016

James W. Hesford, Mary A. Malina and Mina Pizzini

We investigate outcomes associated with the turnover of unskilled workers, isolating its effects on revenue, cost, and profit. Little attention from researchers has been…

Abstract

Purpose

We investigate outcomes associated with the turnover of unskilled workers, isolating its effects on revenue, cost, and profit. Little attention from researchers has been given to unskilled workers, a significant portion of the workforce.

Methodology/approach

This study investigates the relation between turnover among unskilled workers and financial performance using data from 527 hotels owned by the same lodging chain. The workers in our sample are full-time housekeepers and front desk attendants.

Findings

We find that the relation between turnover and performance differs by turnover type (voluntary vs. involuntary) and category of unskilled worker, reiterating the need to differentiate between turnover type and the importance of context in studying turnover. We challenge the assumption that voluntary turnover is categorically harmful and our results for front desk attendants support the view that organizations choose turnover levels that maximize performance. We also provide new evidence on the effects of involuntary turnover. Contrary to the established notion that dismissing less able employees should improve performance, we find that involuntary turnover has negative consequences.

Research limitations/implications

Our results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing voluntary turnover from involuntary turnover and the need to include both in models predicting turnover’s performance effects.

Details

Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-652-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Paul D. Rouse

Traditionally, models of voluntary turnover assume that a rational actor follows a series of linear steps leading towards turnover. In regards to the construct of voluntary

Abstract

Traditionally, models of voluntary turnover assume that a rational actor follows a series of linear steps leading towards turnover. In regards to the construct of voluntary turnover, information technology professionals represent a unique phenomenon that may not adhere to traditional models. A new instinctual model of voluntary turnover provides an alternative method of understanding the processes involved when information technology professionals contemplate turnover.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2008

Emad Mohammad and Siva Nathan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to turnover among sell‐side financial analysts and the consequences of turnover.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to turnover among sell‐side financial analysts and the consequences of turnover.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper identifies two types of turnover, voluntary and involuntary, and defines voluntary (involuntary) as when analysts leave their employment at one brokerage firm and find (do not find) employment at another brokerage firm. Logistic models are estimated relating the probability of turnover to factors that explain turnover for both voluntary and involuntary turnover.

Findings

The paper finds that job performance is positively (negatively) related to voluntary (involuntary) turnover. This finding is consistent with Jackofsky's theory predicting U‐shaped relationship between performance and turnover. For voluntary turnover, analysts' performance and job conditions at the new brokerage firm are examined and related to the factors leading to turnover. It was found that turnover analysts move to smaller brokerage firms and become more accurate. They have lighter workload and enjoy more prestige at the new brokerage firm as they follow larger firms and fewer firms and industries.

Originality/value

This is the first study to apply Jackofsky's theory to the financial analysts' profession. Also, it is the first study to document the consequences to voluntary analyst turnover.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2021

Michelle Brown, Christina Cregan, Carol T. Kulik and Isabel Metz

Voluntary collective turnover can be costly for workplaces. The authors investigate the effectiveness of high-performance work system (HPWS) intensity as a tool to manage…

Abstract

Purpose

Voluntary collective turnover can be costly for workplaces. The authors investigate the effectiveness of high-performance work system (HPWS) intensity as a tool to manage voluntary collective turnover. Further, the authors investigate a cynical workplace climate (CWC) as a boundary condition on the HPWS intensity–voluntary collective turnover relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The unit of analysis is the workplace, with human resource (HR) managers providing data on HPWS practices in Time 1 (T1) and voluntary collective turnover two years later. Aggregated employee data were used to assess the cynical workplace climate. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

This study’s results demonstrate a negative relationship between HPWS intensity and voluntary collective turnover when there is a low cynical workplace climate. The authors find that in a high cynical workplace climate, HPWS intensity is ineffective at managing voluntary collective turnover.

Research limitations/implications

This study’s results show that HPWS intensity needs to be well received by the workforce to be effective in reducing voluntary collective turnover.

Practical implications

To increase the chances of HPWS intensity reducing voluntary collective turnover, workplaces need to assess the level of employee cynicism in their workplace climates. When the climate is assessed as low in cynicism, the workplace can then consider implementing an HPWS.

Originality/value

The authors explain why the HPWS intensity–voluntary collective turnover relationship varies across workplaces. As HR practices are subject to interpretation, workplaces need to look beyond the practices in their HPWS and focus on employee receptivity to HR practices.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Stéphane Renaud and Lucie Morin

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of three training indicators, namely offer, participation and cost, on three firm outcomes, namely voluntary turnover

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of three training indicators, namely offer, participation and cost, on three firm outcomes, namely voluntary turnover, firm performance and profit.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis is carried out using firm-level data sourced from a Canadian national data set. In total, data from 5,237 for-profits firms with ten employees or more were analyzed longitudinally over eight years. Results were generated by XTREG fixed effect longitudinal analyses between the three variables of training, voluntary turnover, firm performance and profit.

Findings

Training offer, operationalized as the number of different formal training programs offered annually by an employer, significantly decreases voluntary turnover while it significantly increases performance and profit. Training participation, operationalized as the percentage of employees receiving training per year, has a significant positive impact on voluntary turnover. Training cost, operationalized as the annual cost of training per employee, has no impact on the three firm outcomes.

Practical implications

Among the various human resource practices a firm can use to strengthen its human capital, training can have a significant impact of its own. Investing in a diversified training offer brings value to a firm by decreasing employee voluntary turnover while increasing firm performance and profit.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the strategic impact of organizational training, demonstrating the impact of training on key organizational outcomes over time. Further, this paper contributes to the empirical literature by making a distinction between voluntary and involuntary turnover. Last, even though this study does not entirely addresses the problem of possible reverse causality, using longitudinal objective data, this study addresses several limits of past research at the macro-level of analysis.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2008

Wei Zhao and Xueguang Zhou

This study aims to investigate how various aspects of intraorganizational career advancement – current career attainments, recent pace of upward mobility, and future…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how various aspects of intraorganizational career advancement – current career attainments, recent pace of upward mobility, and future prospect of career advancement – affect voluntary turnover, drawing empirical evidence from a multinational corporation (MNC) in Taiwan's cultural and labor market environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical study was based on statistical analyses of personnel records of 303 employees in a multinational bank in Taiwan. A discrete‐time logistic model was used to analyse voluntary turnover events.

Findings

Results showed that salary increase and job status generally reduced voluntary turnover. A ceiling position on the job ladder induced turnover and also moderated the relationship between corporate title duration and turnover and that between age and turnover.

Research limitations/implications

Because the empirical evidence was based on data collected from one MNC in Taiwan's distinct research context, this may limit the generalizability of some findings in the study.

Originality/value

Whereas much of the literature on turnover has focused on psychological models, this study adopts an objective career perspective and highlights the significance of intraorganizational career advancement in affecting voluntary turnover. It also deepens one's understanding of career development and choices in a Chinese cultural environment.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Amie M. Schuck and Cara E. Rabe-Hemp

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between voluntary and involuntary turnover and officers’ salaries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between voluntary and involuntary turnover and officers’ salaries.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from the 2013 Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics survey, Poisson regression was used to test hypotheses about the effect of pay and other economic incentives on turnover, while controlling for previously identified influential organizational and community factors, such as crime, community disorganization, geographic region, policing philosophy, collective bargaining, the utilization of body-worn cameras, and workforce diversity.

Findings

Higher salaries were significantly associated with lower voluntary and involuntary turnover rates. In addition, other economic incentives and participation in a defined benefits retirement plan were related to voluntary separations but not dismissals. Consistent with prior research, southern agencies and sheriff’s departments reported higher turnover rates than local police agencies and departments operating in other areas of the USA. The effects of workforce diversity were mixed, while collective bargaining was associated with lower rates of voluntary turnover, and the utilization of body-worn cameras was associated with higher rates.

Originality/value

In addition to contributing to the theoretical literature on antecedents of turnover, this research has practical implications by helping law enforcement officials estimate how changes in the compensation structure affect their ability to retain qualified personnel. Due to the complexities of modern law enforcement, maintaining a strong and stable workforce is becoming a greater challenge, and more research is needed to understand which incentives are crucial in recruiting and retaining the most effective policing personnel.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2008

Jessica E. Lynch and Michelle Tuckey

The aim of the present study is to examine, in detail, the magnitude and profile of police turnover across Australasia.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present study is to examine, in detail, the magnitude and profile of police turnover across Australasia.

Design/methodology/approach

Sworn officer turnover statistics (total separations and voluntary resignations) for four financial years were collected from all Australian and New Zealand police jurisdictions. Comparisons were made with the Australian and international public sector. The age and years of service of resigning officers were also obtained.

Findings

Despite concerns about the high level of turnover, benchmarking data showed that total police turnover was lower than in other Australian public sector organizations and comparable with that in international public sector organizations. Voluntary resignations were also lower in policing than in the Australian public sector, but higher than in the international public sector. Further, resignations were the major form of turnover, and female officers resigned at a higher rate than male officers with a peak in the 25‐39‐year age bracket.

Practical implications

Although, over the last few years, turnover within Australasian police organizations has been low, the high proportion of resignations suggests that it is possible to achieve further reductions. This finding has an important implication for police agencies currently experiencing difficulty in maintaining sufficient numbers; namely, that the overall turnover rate in police organizations should be responsive to organizational initiatives. Police jurisdictions should therefore endeavor to investigate the causes of voluntary resignation to inform strategies to minimize avoidable turnover.

Originality/value

In addition to highlighting a variety of issues relevant to the consideration of turnover within policing, the present study obtained objective and reliable data to challenge the alleged problem of high turnover within Australasian policing. The benchmarking conducted here offers a detailed insight into the nature and extent of voluntary turnover within Australasian police organizations, and provides clear directions for future work in this area.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2007

Steven Balsam, Richard Gifford and Sungsoo Kim

The objective of this research is to examine the effect of a broad‐based option program on voluntary employee turnover.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this research is to examine the effect of a broad‐based option program on voluntary employee turnover.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the effect of a broad‐based stock option program in a Fortune 100 company during the 1990s and uses logistical analysis.

Findings

Employee turnover is an issue due to the costs involved in recruiting and training replacements. Voluntary turnover can be reduced if a cost can be imposed on the departing employee. This cost need not be an explicit cost, but can take the form of a benefit forgone when the employee departs. Along these lines, stock option grants to employees, if properly structured, have the ability to reduce voluntary employee turnover. The paper finds that voluntary turnover is lower during the periods in which the option cannot be exercised, i.e. the vesting period. This effect is strongest for employees approaching retirement, but also holds for employees leaving the company for other reasons.

Originality/value

The finding that unvested options reduce or delay voluntary turnover, which while intuitive, has not to the author's knowledge been shown previously, and is important for those involved in the compensation plan design process.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

James L. Price

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool…

Abstract

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool, seeks to improve measurement in the study of work organizations and to facilitate the teaching of introductory courses in this subject. Focuses solely on work organizations, that is, social systems in which members work for money. Defines measurement and distinguishes four levels: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Selects specific measures on the basis of quality, diversity, simplicity and availability and evaluates each measure for its validity and reliability. Employs a set of 38 concepts ‐ ranging from “absenteeism” to “turnover” as the handbook’s frame of reference. Concludes by reviewing organizational measurement over the past 30 years and recommending future measurement reseach.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 18 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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