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Book part

Beverly Troiano and Joseph C. Rumenapp

To provide an understanding of how video recording can be used to mediate university level teacher development for language learning in diverse classrooms.

Abstract

Purpose

To provide an understanding of how video recording can be used to mediate university level teacher development for language learning in diverse classrooms.

Methodology/approach

This study draws on cultural historical activity theory (Engeström, 1999) and the subsequent professional development literature to conceptualize video as a tool for self-reflection and critique to further learning. This chapter outlines how video analysis can be used in inservice teacher education to investigate the micro- and macro-interactions with English learners.

Findings

We found that utilizing various forms of analysis on a single video from the classroom can help teachers build connections between the micro and macro processes and implications of language in classrooms with English learners. Additionally, by studying videos of classroom activities, teachers learn how linguistic theories and particular instructional and assessment tools can be implemented in their own classrooms.

Practical implications

Videos can be a powerful tool for teacher educators and professional development experts because they allow for the analysis and reflection of a variety of analytic levels. Additionally, this study provides evidence that videos can be used to anchor otherwise discrete university coursework and bring cohesion and collaboration throughout the curriculum.

Details

Video Research in Disciplinary Literacies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-678-2

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Book part

Mary B. McVee, Lynn E. Shanahan, P. David Pearson and Tyler W. Rinker

Our purpose in this chapter is to provide researchers and educators with a model of how the Gradual Release of Responsibility (GRR) can be used with inservice and…

Abstract

Purpose

Our purpose in this chapter is to provide researchers and educators with a model of how the Gradual Release of Responsibility (GRR) can be used with inservice and preservice teachers for professional development when teachers engage in reflective processes through the use of video reflection.

Methodology/approach

In this chapter we provide a brief review of the literature related to video as a learning tool for reflection and a discussion of the Gradual Release of Responsibility and emphasize the role of a teacher educator or more knowledgeable other who scaffolds inservice and preservice teacher reflection across various contexts. Several versions of the GRR model are included. We introduce and explain examples from two class sessions where a combination of inservice and preservice teachers engaged in reflection through video with support from a teacher educator.

Findings

We demonstrate that the teacher educator followed the GRR model as she guided preservice and inservice teachers to reflect on video. Through a contrastive analysis of two different class sessions, we show how the instructor released responsibility to the students and how students began to take up this responsibility to reflect more deeply on their own teaching practices.

Research limitations/implications

The examples within this chapter are from a graduate level teacher education course affiliated with a university literacy center. The course was comprised of both preservice and inservice teachers. The model is applicable in a variety of settings and for teachers who are novices as well as those who are experienced teachers.

Practical implications

This is a valuable model for teacher educators and others in professional development to use with teachers. Many teachers are familiar with the use of the GRR model in considering how to guide children’s literacy practices, and the GRR can easily be introduced to teachers to assist them in video reflection on their own teaching.

Originality/value

This chapter provides significant research-based examples of the GRR model and foregrounds the role of a teacher educator in video reflection. The chapter provides a unique framing for research and teaching related to video reflection. The chapter explicitly links the GRR to teacher reflection and video in contexts of professional development or teacher education.

Details

Video Reflection in Literacy Teacher Education and Development: Lessons from Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-676-8

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Article

Eugene Yujun Fu, Hong Va Leong, Grace Ngai and Stephen C.F. Chan

Social signal processing under affective computing aims at recognizing and extracting useful human social interaction patterns. Fight is a common social interaction in…

Abstract

Purpose

Social signal processing under affective computing aims at recognizing and extracting useful human social interaction patterns. Fight is a common social interaction in real life. A fight detection system finds wide applications. This paper aims to detect fights in a natural and low-cost manner.

Design/methodology/approach

Research works on fight detection are often based on visual features, demanding substantive computation and good video quality. In this paper, the authors propose an approach to detect fight events through motion analysis. Most existing works evaluated their algorithms on public data sets manifesting simulated fights, where the fights are acted out by actors. To evaluate real fights, the authors collected videos involving real fights to form a data set. Based on the two types of data sets, the authors evaluated the performance of their motion signal analysis algorithm, which was then compared with the state-of-the-art approach based on MoSIFT descriptors with Bag-of-Words mechanism, and basic motion signal analysis with Bag-of-Words.

Findings

The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach accurately detects fights in real scenarios and performs better than the MoSIFT approach.

Originality/value

By collecting and annotating real surveillance videos containing real fight events and augmenting with well-known data sets, the authors proposed, implemented and evaluated a low computation approach, comparing it with the state-of-the-art approach. The authors uncovered some fundamental differences between real and simulated fights and initiated a new study in discriminating real against simulated fight events, with very good performance.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Book part

Hannah M. Dostal and Kimberly A. Wolbers

In this chapter, we describe how a rubric-style observation instrument for observing classroom writing instruction was used to focus and optimize collaborative video

Abstract

Purpose

In this chapter, we describe how a rubric-style observation instrument for observing classroom writing instruction was used to focus and optimize collaborative video analysis sessions among teachers and researchers spread across six states. As part of a three-year Institute of Education Sciences (IES) development grant, we used videos of classroom instruction both as data for researchers studying the nature and impact of a specific instructional approach, Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI), and as a vehicle for collaborative teacher professional development – for both teachers and teacher leaders.

Methodology/approach

By tying video analysis to a shared observation instrument, we were able to target video clip selection for discussion and focus our analysis to support teachers across several states and school settings implementing a new approach to writing instruction. After a brief overview of the project for which videos were used, we describe the tools and protocols developed over time to ensure the efficient and powerful use of collaborative video analysis. We also share our experiences on the nature and outcomes of these collaborative sessions both in terms of teachers’ involvement and changes in practice over time.

Findings

We argue that the use of a common rubric to guide video clip selection, discussion, and analysis allowed teachers to strategically engage in “data reduction” – that is, not be overwhelmed by the amount of video data – and to use the videos as catalysts for conversations as well as evidence of what works well for individual students. As researchers, these sessions allowed us to ensure collaborative video analysis sessions were focused, efficient, and growth-oriented as well as sources of data for understanding trends in challenges and trajectories of growth for teachers implementing a new approach to instruction.

Practical implications

This work illustrates how researchers can use video for dual purposes – to conduct literacy investigations and to provide teachers with professional development involving video review and reflection.

Details

Video Research in Disciplinary Literacies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-678-2

Keywords

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Book part

Lynn E. Shanahan, Andrea L. Tochelli-Ward and Tyler W. Rinker

This chapter serves to synthesize existing literature centered on inservice teacher video-facilitated reflection on literacy pedagogy.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter serves to synthesize existing literature centered on inservice teacher video-facilitated reflection on literacy pedagogy.

Methodology/approach

The inservice teacher literature review is focused on: (1) video analysis frameworks and scaffolds used to facilitate inservice teachers’ video reflection; (2) reflection and video discussions; and (3) the use of video for inservice teacher change and development.

Findings

From this review we learn that there is a dearth of video reflection research with inservice teachers on literacy pedagogy. Within the field of literacy, we know far less about how, when, and why to use video with inservice teachers than preservice teachers.

Research limitations/implications

The review of literature does not incorporate inservice teacher video reflection in disciplines such as science and mathematics. Expanding this review to all disciplines would present a more comprehensive picture of video reflection with inservice teachers.

Practical implications

The chapter highlights the potential value of using video in inservice professional development and points to the specific needs for studies to identify the most effective uses of video specific to inservice professionals.

Originality/value

This chapter provides significant research-based information for designing and implementing future studies and professional development focused on video reflection with inservice teachers.

Details

Video Reflection in Literacy Teacher Education and Development: Lessons from Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-676-8

Keywords

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Article

Zied Kechaou, Ali Wali, Mohamed Ben Ammar, Hichem Karray and Adel M. Alimi

Despite the actual prevalence of diverse types of multimedia information, research on video news is still in an early stage. Improving the accessibility of video news…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the actual prevalence of diverse types of multimedia information, research on video news is still in an early stage. Improving the accessibility of video news seems worth investigating, therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present a new combination mode of video news text clustering and selection. This method is useful for sorting out and classifying various types of news videos and media texts based on sentiment analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel system is proposed, whereby video news are identified and categorized into good or bad ones via the authors' suggested Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) hybrid learning method. Actually, an exploratory video news sentiment analysis case study, conducted on various news databases, has proven that the feature‐selection‐combining method, encompassing the Information Gain (IG), Mutual Information (MI) and CHI‐statistic (CHI), performs the best classification, which testifies and highlights the designed framework's value.

Findings

In fact, the system turns out to be applicable to several areas, especially video news, where annotation and personal perspectives affect the accuracy aspect.

Research limitations/implications

The present work shows the way for further research pertaining to the personal attitudes and the application of different linguistic techniques during the classification.

Originality/value

The achieved results are so promising, encouraging and satisfactory, that they highlight the originality and efficiency of the authors' approach as an effective tool enabling to secure an easy access to video news and multi‐media texts.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Article

Amir M.U. Wagdarikar and Ranjan K. Senapati

The technique for hiding confidential data in specific digital media by enhancing the graphical contents is known as watermarking. The dissemination of information over a…

Abstract

Purpose

The technique for hiding confidential data in specific digital media by enhancing the graphical contents is known as watermarking. The dissemination of information over a secure channel is essential for multimedia applications. The purpose of this study is to develop a secure communication approach for OFDM system.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper exploits a secure communication in the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system using wavelet-based video watermarking technique. In this work, the Chronological-MS algorithm is used for securing the data communication in the OFDM system. Here, the secret message is embedded in video frames using wavelet transform for hiding sensitive information and the hidden information is transmitted over the OFDM system. The Chronological-MS algorithm is used for selecting the optimal regions in the video for embedding secret message. In embedding phase, wavelet coefficients are obtained by applying wavelet transform on the frame for embedding the secret message. Meanwhile, in extraction phase, the inverse wavelet transform is applied to extract the secret message.

Findings

Considering number of frames, the maximum Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) value is attained by proposed Wavelet + Chronological MS method for Video 2 with value 73.643 dB, respectively. Meanwhile, the minimum mean squared error (MSE) attained by the proposed Wavelet + Chronological MS method is when considering number of frames with MSE values as 0.001 for both Videos 1 and 2. The minimum bit error rate (BER) value is attained by the proposed method with value 0.00009 considering random noise with Video 1. Thus, the proposed Wavelet + Chronological MS have shown better results than the existing techniques.

Originality/value

This work proposes a wavelet-based watermarking method using Chronological-MS, for initiating secured communication over an OFDM. One of the main advantages of wavelets is that they offer a simultaneous localization in time and frequency domain. Hence, the proposed method offers the highly secured data transmission over the OFDM.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article

K. Satya Sujith and G. Sasikala

Object detection models have gained considerable popularity as they aid in lot of applications, like monitoring, video surveillance, etc. Object detection through the video

Abstract

Purpose

Object detection models have gained considerable popularity as they aid in lot of applications, like monitoring, video surveillance, etc. Object detection through the video tracking faces lot of challenges, as most of the videos obtained as the real time stream are affected due to the environmental factors.

Design/methodology/approach

This research develops a system for crowd tracking and crowd behaviour recognition using hybrid tracking model. The input for the proposed crowd tracking system is high density crowd videos containing hundreds of people. The first step is to detect human through visual recognition algorithms. Here, a priori knowledge of location point is given as input to visual recognition algorithm. The visual recognition algorithm identifies the human through the constraints defined within Minimum Bounding Rectangle (MBR). Then, the spatial tracking model based tracks the path of the human object movement in the video frame, and the tracking is carried out by extraction of color histogram and texture features. Also, the temporal tracking model is applied based on NARX neural network model, which is effectively utilized to detect the location of moving objects. Once the path of the person is tracked, the behaviour of every human object is identified using the Optimal Support Vector Machine which is newly developed by combing SVM and optimization algorithm, namely MBSO. The proposed MBSO algorithm is developed through the integration of the existing techniques, like BSA and MBO.

Findings

The dataset for the object tracking is utilized from Tracking in high crowd density dataset. The proposed OSVM classifier has attained improved performance with the values of 0.95 for accuracy.

Originality/value

This paper presents a hybrid high density video tracking model, and the behaviour recognition model. The proposed hybrid tracking model tracks the path of the object in the video through the temporal tracking and spatial tracking. The features train the proposed OSVM classifier based on the weights selected by the proposed MBSO algorithm. The proposed MBSO algorithm can be regarded as the modified version of the BSO algorithm.

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Book part

Miriam Gamoran Sherin

This chapter examines the role that video has played since its introduction to teacher education in the 1960s. The chapter first reviews several leading innovations that…

Abstract

This chapter examines the role that video has played since its introduction to teacher education in the 1960s. The chapter first reviews several leading innovations that have been popular across the last forty years. I then argue that in the past, teacher education has not always capitalized on the features of video that make it particularly useful for teachers. To address this issue, I introduce three affordances of video that should be considered when designing video-based activities for teachers. To conclude, I point to several programs that leverage these affordances and that I recommend we investigate for the future.

Details

Using Video in Teacher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-232-0

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Article

Mette Molbæk and Rune Müller Kristensen

The purpose of this paper is to discuss methodological issues concerning the use of video observation of a single lesson as a supplement to interviews when studying…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss methodological issues concerning the use of video observation of a single lesson as a supplement to interviews when studying teachers’ practice and competencies.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a Danish follow-up study focused on teachers’ practice as a jumping-off point, the authors address both opportunities and challenges when triangulating interviews with video observations of a single lesson. The discussion is structured around the four challenges when using video observations presented by Derry et al. (2010), namely selection, technology, analysis and ethics.

Findings

Based on experiences from the follow-up study, the use of video observations for triangulation has the potential to nuance the meanings ascribed to teachers’ practice. This approach entails productive challenges that can support the more nuanced and diverse perspectives on teachers’ practice if used proactively.

Originality/value

Although there is a wide body of literature on conducting interviews and observations when studying teachers’ practice, the use of a combination of interviews and video observations is seldom addressed. This paper presents concrete experience of how to capture different aspects of teachers’ practice by triangulating data generated from interviews and from video observations in a research design with limited resources. The authors discuss what to consider when planning and conducting video observations of a single lesson as part of an interview-based study.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

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