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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Shamal Faily, Claudia Iacob, Raian Ali and Duncan Ki-Aries

This paper aims to present a tool-supported approach for visualising personas as social goal models, which can subsequently be used to identify security tensions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a tool-supported approach for visualising personas as social goal models, which can subsequently be used to identify security tensions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors devised an approach to partially automate the construction of social goal models from personas. The authors provide two examples of how this approach can identify previously hidden implicit vulnerabilities and validate ethical hazards faced by penetration testers and their safeguards.

Findings

Visualising personas as goal models makes it easier for stakeholders to see implications of their goals being satisfied or denied and designers to incorporate the creation and analysis of such models into the broader requirements engineering (RE) tool-chain.

Originality/value

The approach can be used with minimal changes to existing user experience and goal modelling approaches and security RE tools.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Ben Carterette, Evangelos Kanoulas and Emine Yilmaz

Purpose — The overall quality of an information retrieval system depends on many different aspects of the system and its users' information seeking behaviour, such as the…

Abstract

Purpose — The overall quality of an information retrieval system depends on many different aspects of the system and its users' information seeking behaviour, such as the speed of the system, the user interface, the query language and the features provided by the engine. One of the most important aspects is the effectiveness of the retrieval system, i.e. its ability to retrieve items that are relevant to the information need of an end user. This chapter focuses on methods for measuring effectiveness, in particular focusing on recent work that more directly models the utility of an engine to its users.

Methodology/approach — We discuss traditional approaches to effectiveness evaluation based on test collections, then transition to approaches based on test collections along with explicit models of user interaction with search results. We contrast this with approaches for which the user is ‘in the loop’, such as user studies and online evaluations.

Research limitations/implications — If it were possible to model users perfectly, we could directly estimate the utility of a search engine to its users; this would undoubtedly have a transformative effect on information retrieval and web search research. In practice, this goal will never be achievable because users exhibit far too much variability in how they approach the search engine, and furthermore provide valuable feedback that models and simulations cannot provide. Nevertheless, better models of user interaction will help develop better web search engines for a wider variety of tasks more rapidly.

Originality/value of paper — This is the first work that surveys recent work on user model-based evaluation and places it in a context with traditional evaluation based on the Cranfield paradigm.

Details

Web Search Engine Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-636-2

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Brahim Dib, Fahd Kalloubi, El Habib Nfaoui and Abdelhak Boulaalam

The purpose of this study is to facilitate the task of finding appropriate information to read about, and searching for people who are in the same field of interest…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to facilitate the task of finding appropriate information to read about, and searching for people who are in the same field of interest. Knowing that more people keep up with new streaming information on Twitter micro-blogging service. With the immense number of micro-posts shared via the follower/followee network graph, Twitter users find themselves in front of millions of tweets, which makes the task crucial.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a long short–term memory (LSTM) model that relies on the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) output vector for followee recommendation, the LDA model applied as a topic modeling strategy is proposed.

Findings

This study trains the model using a real-life data set extracted based on Twitter follower/followee architecture. It confirms the effectiveness and scalability of the proposed approach. The approach improves the state-of-the-art models average-LSTM and time-LSTM.

Research limitations/implications

This study improves mainly the existing followee recommendation systems. Because, unlike previous studies, it applied a non-hand-crafted method which is the LSTM neural network with LDA model for topics extraction. The main limitation of this study is the cold-start users cannot be treated, also some active fake accounts may not be detected.

Practical implications

The aim of this approach is to assist users seeking appropriate information to read about, by choosing appropriate profiles to follow.

Social implications

This approach consolidates the social relationship between users in a microblogging platform by suggesting like-minded people to each other. Thus, finding users with the same interests will be easy without spending a lot of time seeking relevant users.

Originality/value

Instead of classic recommendation models, the paper provides an efficient neural network searching method to make it easier to find appropriate users to follow. Therefore, affording an effective followee recommendation system.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 20 October 2020

Gerd Berget, Andrew MacFarlane and Nils Pharo

A substantial number of models have been developed over the years, with the purpose of describing the information seeking and searching of people in various user groups…

Abstract

Purpose

A substantial number of models have been developed over the years, with the purpose of describing the information seeking and searching of people in various user groups and contexts. Several models have been frequently applied in user studies, but are rarely included in research on participants with impairments. Models are purposeful when developing theories. Consequently, it might be valuable to apply models when studying this user group, as well. The purpose of this study was to explore whether existing models are applicable in describing the online information seeking and searching of users with impairments, with an overall aim to increase the use of models in studies involving impairments.

Design/methodology/approach

Six models were selected according to the following criteria: the model should address information seeking or searching, include the interaction between users and systems whilst incorporating assistive technology. Two user groups were selected from each of the categories: cognitive, sensory and motor impairments, namely dyslexia, autism, blindness, deafness, paralysation and Parkinson's. The models were then analysed based on known barriers reported for these cohorts.

Findings

All the selected models had potential to be applied in user studies involving impairments. While three of the models had the highest potential to be used in the current form, the other three models were applicable either through minor revisions or by combining models.

Originality/value

This study contributes with a new perspective on the use of models in information seeking and searching research on users with impairments.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 77 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Andrew Jennings and Hideyuki Higuchi

New methods are needed for accessing very large information services. This paper proposes the use of a user model neural network to allow better access to a news service…

Abstract

New methods are needed for accessing very large information services. This paper proposes the use of a user model neural network to allow better access to a news service. The network is constructed on the basis of articles read, and articles marked as rejected. It adapts over time to better represent the user's interests and rank the articles supplied by the news service. Using an augmented keyword search we can also search for articles using keywords in conjunction with the user model neural network. Trials of the system in a USENET news environment show promising results for the use of this approach in information retrieval.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 10 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2010

Daniela Godoy, Silvia Schiaffino and Analía Amandi

Recommender agents are used to make recommendations of interesting items in a wide variety of application domains, such as web page recommendation, music, e‐commerce…

Abstract

Purpose

Recommender agents are used to make recommendations of interesting items in a wide variety of application domains, such as web page recommendation, music, e‐commerce, movie recommendation, tourism, restaurant recommendation, among others. Despite the various and different domains in which recommender agents are used and the variety of approaches they use to represent user interests and make recommendations, there is some functionality that is common to all of them, such as user model management and recommendation of interesting items. This paper aims at generalizing these common behaviors into a framework that enables developers to reuse recommender agents' main characteristics in their own developments.

Design/methodology/approach

This work presents a framework for recommendation that provides the control structures, the data structures and a set of algorithms and metrics for different recommendation methods. The proposed framework acts as the base design for recommender agents or applications that want to add the already modeled and implemented capabilities to their own functionality. In contrast with other proposals, this framework is designed to enable the integration of diverse user models, such as demographic, content‐based and item‐based. In addition to the different implementations provided for these components, new algorithms and user model representations can be easily added to the proposed approach. Thus, personal agents originally designed to assist a single user can reuse the behavior implemented in the framework to expand their recommendation strategies.

Findings

The paper describes three different recommender agents built by materializing the proposed framework: a movie recommender agent, a tourism recommender agent, and a web page recommender agent. Each agent uses a different recommendation approach. PersonalSearcher, an agent originally designed to suggest interesting web pages to a user, was extended to collaboratively assist a group of users using content‐based algorithms. MovieRecommender recommends interesting movies using an item‐based approach and Traveller suggests holiday packages using demographic user models. Findings encountered during the development of these agents and their empirical evaluation are described here.

Originality/value

The advantages of the proposed framework are twofold. On the one hand, the functionality provided by the framework enables the development of recommender agents without the need for implementing its whole set of capabilities from scratch. The main processes and data structures of recommender agents are already implemented. On the other hand, already existing agents can be enhanced by incorporating the functionality provided by the recommendation framework in order to act collaboratively.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Werner Kurschl, Mirjam Augstein, Thomas Burger and Claudia Pointner

The purpose of this paper is to present an approach where a novel user modeling wizard for people with motor impairments is used to gain a deeper understanding of very…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an approach where a novel user modeling wizard for people with motor impairments is used to gain a deeper understanding of very specific (touch-based and touchless) interaction patterns. The findings are used to set up and fill a user model which allows to automatically derive an application- and user-specific configuration for natural user interfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on expert knowledge in the domain of software/user interfaces for people with special needs, a test-case –based user modeling tool was developed. Task-based user tests were conducted with seven users for the touch-based interaction scenario and with five users for the touchless interaction scenario. The participants are all people with different motor and/or cognitive impairments.

Findings

The paper describes the results of different test cases that were designed to model users’ touch-based and touchless interaction capabilities. To evaluate the tool’s findings, experts additionally judged the participants’ performance (their opinions were compared to the tool’s findings). The results suggest that the user modeling tool could quite well capture users’ capabilities.

Social implications

The paper presents a tool that can be used to model users’ interaction capabilities. The approach aims at taking over some of the (very time-consuming) configuration tasks consultants have to do to configure software according to the needs of people with disabilities. This can lead to a wider accessibility of software, especially in the area of gesture-based user interaction.

Originality/value

Part of the approach has been published in the proceedings of the Interactional Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing and Multimedia 2014. Significant additions have been made since (e.g. all of the touchless interaction part of the approach and the related user study).

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Feicheng Ma, Ye Chen and Yiming Zhao

This paper aims to propose a conceptual model for improving the organization of user needs information in the big data environment.

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1887

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a conceptual model for improving the organization of user needs information in the big data environment.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model of the organization of user needs information based on Linked Data techniques is constructed. This model has three layers: the Data Layer, the Semantic Layer and the Application Layer.

Findings

Requirements for organizing user needs information in the big data environment are identified as follows: improving the intelligence level, establishing standards and guidelines for the description of user needs information, enabling the interconnection of user needs information and considering individual privacy in the organization and analysis of user needs.

Practical implications

This Web of Needs model could be used to improve knowledge services by matching user needs information with increasing semantic knowledge resources more effectively and efficiently in the big data environment.

Originality/value

This study proposes a conceptual model, the Web of Needs model, to organize and interconnect user needs. Compared with existing methods, the Web of Needs model satisfies the requirements for the organization of user needs information in the big data environment with regard to four aspects: providing the basis and conditions for intelligent processing of user needs information, using RDF as a description norm, enabling the interconnection of user needs information and setting various protocols to protect user privacy.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

William Hemmig

Looks at the pathfinder approach to library instruction, which was developed in the 1960s by Patricia Knapp. Knapp's system focused, not on the simple provision of answers…

Downloads
3759

Abstract

Purpose

Looks at the pathfinder approach to library instruction, which was developed in the 1960s by Patricia Knapp. Knapp's system focused, not on the simple provision of answers to questions, but on the teaching of the effective use of the library and its resources– in other words, on the finding of one's “way” in the library.

Design/methodology/approach

A traditional theoretical model for the creation and evaluation of pathfinders (subject research guides) can be identified through study of the literature. This model, expressed in the design criteria of consistency, selectivity, transparency and accessibility, sprang from an impulse to serve the inexperienced user by emulating or facilitating the user's search process.

Findings

A gap in this model can be detected, in the form of a missing multi‐dimensional picture of the user and the user's experience of the information service via the pathfinder. In an attempt to fill the gap, literature examining information behavior, the search process, the design of user‐centered services, and the information retrieval interaction is discussed.

Originality/value

An experience‐centered model for online research guide design and evaluation is derived from the findings.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Eduardo Castillejo, Aitor Almeida and Diego López-de-Ipiña

The purpose of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art in adaptive user interface systems by studying their historical development over the past 20 years. Moreover…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art in adaptive user interface systems by studying their historical development over the past 20 years. Moreover, this paper contributes with a specific model combining three main entities (users, context and devices) that have been demonstrated to be always represented in these environments. Novel concepts that should be taken into account in these systems are also presented.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors first provide a review and a comparison of current user interface adaptive systems. Next, the authors detail the most significant models and the set of techniques used to, finally, propose a novel model based on the studied literature.

Findings

Literature solutions for adaptive user interface systems tend to be very domain dependant. This situation restricts the possibility of sharing and exporting the information between such systems. Furthermore, the studied approaches barely highlight the dynamism of these models.

Originality/value

The paper is a review of adaptive user interface systems and models. Although there are several reviews in this area, there is a lack of research for modelling users, context and devices simultaneously in this domain. The paper also presents several significant concepts that should be taken into account to bring an adaptive and dynamic perspective to the studied models.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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